Topic - Economic Development

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Fed creates online portal to its community development resources

July 2014 - Community Dividend

Helping small businesses survive big construction: Strategies from the Green Line LRT project

When major construction tore up a busy Twin Cities thoroughfare, a public-private partnership mobilized to help small businesses weather the disruptions.
Jacob Wascalus
July 2014 - Community Dividend

Maximizing the tribal land buy-back program: How priority lists can help tribes influence what's purchased

By identifying desirable parcels for development, American Indian tribes can make the most of a federal program that's putting reservation land back in tribal hands.
Jacob Wascalus
July 2014 - Community Dividend

Minneapolis Fed launches consumer credit data page

July 2014 - Community Dividend

Northside Achievement Zone aims to break the poverty cycle through education

A collaborative effort among schools, neighborhood groups, and service organizations is working to boost academic performance and family stability in North Minneapolis.
Jacob Wascalus
July 2014 - Community Dividend

State incentive fund helps ease North Dakota's affordable housing shortage

HIF, a tax-incentive program to fund housing for essential workers and low- to moderate-income people, is a hit with contributors and developers alike.
Paula Woessner
July 2014 - Community Dividend

Treasury announces $153 million in New Markets Tax Credit allocations for three Ninth District organizations

July 2014 - Community Dividend

CDFIs emerge as key partners in improving community health

Community development financial institutions often play a critical role in financing the infrastructure that makes good health possible.
Ela Rausch
April 2014 - Community Dividend

Dakota Resources coaches rural towns on development strategies

Communities in rural South Dakota have a partner in Dakota Resources, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to revitalizing the state's small towns.
Angela Eilers
April 2014 - Community Dividend

First-ever tribal national park planned for Pine Ridge

April 2014 - Community Dividend

Mass CDFI recertification push winnows list, ensures compliance

A 2013 mandate from the U.S. Treasury resulted in a reduced but focused pool of community development financial institutions.
Jacob Wascalus
April 2014 - Community Dividend

North Dakota oil boomtown has nation's highest rent

April 2014 - Community Dividend

With bank support, arts organizations help build better communities

Investments in local arts and culture can create social, human, and economic capital.
Jacob Wascalus
April 2014 - Community Dividend

CDFI Fund announces $17 million in Bank Enterprise Awards

January 2014 - Community Dividend

Healthy food access does indeed matter, report on recent research says

January 2014 - Community Dividend

How did community land trusts survive the housing crash?

Thanks to some of their features and practices, these shared-equity homeownership organizations appear to have weathered the recent crisis relatively well.
Harshada Karnik
January 2014 - Community Dividend

Making surety bonds a surer thing for Native contractors

Recent changes to a federal bond-guarantee program could help construction firms in Indian Country and elsewhere do business.
Andrew Twite, Ahna Minge
January 2014 - Community Dividend

Minneapolis Fed releases Housing Market Index report

January 2014 - Community Dividend

Mitchell, S.D., named a Smart21 Community

January 2014 - Community Dividend

Returning to the mortgage market post-default: The neighborhood effect

A recent analysis suggests that when it comes to reentering the mortgage market after a default, geography matters.
Michael Grover
January 2014 - Community Dividend

Business leaders expect increased economic growth in 2014

Business Outlook Poll
Toby Madden
January 2014 - fedgazette

Ninth District economy expected to grow moderately in 2014

Rob Grunewald, Joe Mahon
January 2014 - fedgazette

Ninth District Insight Report - Quarter 2, 2013

November 2013 - Ninth District Insight

Census data show U.S. poverty rate holding steady, but still higher than pre-recession level

October 2013 - Community Dividend

Collaborating to create affordable housing: A conversation with Alan Arthur of Aeon

Community Dividend asks Alan Arthur, president and CEO of Minneapolis-based Aeon, how his organization is navigating the post-recession affordable housing environment in the Twin Cities.
Jacob Wascalus
October 2013 - Community Dividend

Development programs help ex-offenders join the workforce

Helping people who have criminal records find sustained, gainful employment could help produce savings and benefits for both the ex-offenders and society at large.
Jacob Wascalus
October 2013 - Community Dividend

Interactive web tool maps urban poverty by race

October 2013 - Community Dividend

Long-awaited rules require the BIA to "buy Indian"

New rules that implement the Buy Indian Act of 1910 give procurement preferences to Indian-owned businesses.
Paula Woessner
October 2013 - Community Dividend

Ninth District tribal colleges receive leadership awards

October 2013 - Community Dividend

Rural Data Portal gets an update

October 2013 - Community Dividend

Techies and neighborhood groups hack their way to community solutions

At civic hackathons, community leaders and volunteer technologists join forces to design and build digital tools that address local needs.
Jacob Wascalus
October 2013 - Community Dividend

Federal tax credit program helps spur Butte business revival

With the help of New Markets Tax Credits, a mixed-use redevelopment project in Uptown Butte, Mont., is catalyzing further revitalization in the area.
Jacob Wascalus
July 2013 - Community Dividend

Minneapolis Fed co-authors report on collaborations to improve community health

July 2013 - Community Dividend

Rise in smartphones puts more financial tools in the hands of the unbanked

Recent reports suggest that mobile banking's potential to reach unbanked and underbanked individuals is growing quickly
Richard M. Todd
July 2013 - Community Dividend

Strengthening the performance of nonprofits: A conversation with Steve Rothschild of Invest in Outcomes

Author and nonprofit leader Steve Rothschild discusses the principles social enterprises should follow to achieve success.
Jacob Wascalus
July 2013 - Community Dividend

USDA report explores what rural means

July 2013 - Community Dividend

Ninth District Insight Report - Quarter 4, 2012

April 2013 - Ninth District Insight

Forecast models and surveys point to steady growth in 2013

District Economic Outlook
Rob Grunewald, Joe Mahon
January 2013 - fedgazette

Many business leaders expect sluggish economic growth in 2013

Business Outlook Poll
Toby Madden
January 2013 - fedgazette

Childhood poverty rate climbs past 20 percent in the U.S.

January 2013 - Community Dividend

Fiddler appointed to Community Development Advisory Board

January 2013 - Community Dividend

Human service organizations "tread water" in face of funding uncertainty

Unpredictability over public funding levels is hampering many nonprofit organizations' efforts to improve or expand services.
Jacob Wascalus
January 2013 - Community Dividend

New credit union promotes financial access on Pine Ridge reservation

The first-ever federally insured financial institution on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota is open for business.
Paula Woessner
January 2013 - Community Dividend

Rural CDFIs: Creating connections to marketplaces: A conversation with Mary Mathews of the Entrepreneur Fund

Community Dividend speaks with Mary Mathews, founding president and CEO of the Entrepreneur Fund, to learn about the circumstances and challenges rural community development financial institutions (CD
Michou Kokodoko
January 2013 - Community Dividend

Service providers retool and collaborate to address increase in suburban poverty

Suburban communities in the Minneapolis-St. Paul region now have nearly as many impoverished residents as the central cities, and local assistance organizations are modifying their approaches in respo
Jacob Wascalus
January 2013 - Community Dividend

Three Affiliated Tribes to build oil refinery

January 2013 - Community Dividend

Treasury's CDFI Fund announces nearly $18 million in Bank Enterprise Awards

January 2013 - Community Dividend

Ninth District Insight Report - Quarter 2, 2012

Published by the Community Development Department of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis
December 2012 - Ninth District Insight

The unnatural trend in natural disasters

Natural disaster declarations are on the rise in the Ninth District, and while weather is an important factor, it's likely not the only one
Dulguun Batbold
November 2012 - fedgazette

"Agripreneur" program helps rural Latinos become small-scale farmers

An initiative of Minneapolis-based Main Street Project teaches budding farmers, or "agripreneurs," to raise and sell poultry and other agricultural products as part of an emerging local food network.
Jacob Wascalus
October 2012 - Community Dividend

Business Correspondent model boosts financial inclusion in India

An innovative, technology-based banking model is giving people in remote areas of India access to formal financial institutions.
Anupam Kishore
October 2012 - Community Dividend

CDFI News

October 2012 - Community Dividend

Goldman Sachs awards $4.4 million to Montana CDC

October 2012 - Community Dividend

North Dakota oil boom squeezes seniors who rent

The surging energy industry in the Bakken oil patch may be making life harder for some area residents, particularly the elderly.
Jacob Wascalus
October 2012 - Community Dividend

More of the same: Moderate economic growth to continue

Rob Grunewald, Joe Mahon
July 2012 - fedgazette

Call for papers: The eighth biennial Federal Reserve community development research conference

July 2012 - Community Dividend

Citi Foundation awards entrepreneurship grant to SDIBA

July 2012 - Community Dividend

Fed releases report on economic development in Indian Country

July 2012 - Community Dividend

Less affluent students face mounting college debt challenges

Recent reports confirm that students from low- to moderate-income families graduate with greater student debt burdens than their more affluent peers.
Michael Grover
July 2012 - Community Dividend

Ninth District community conditions are mixed, Minneapolis Fed report finds

July 2012 - Community Dividend

Spanning the spectrum of Native workforce development

Initiatives under way in the Ninth District demonstrate that Native-focused organizations are working to increase work preparedness, education levels, and employment rates in the communities they serv
Jacob Wascalus
July 2012 - Community Dividend

No room at the inn

For newcomers to oil country, their first job is finding a place to live
Phil Davies
April 2012 - fedgazette

Exploring Innovations essay contest winner: Restructuring the New Markets Tax Credit Program: Three proposed changes for increasing efficiency

A Ninth District student's winning entry in the 2011 Exploring Innovations conference essay contest, which asked, "Is the New Markets Tax Credit Program the most effective way to subsidize the creatio
Guncha Jumakuliyeva
April 2012 - Community Dividend

Create Jobs for USA Fund awards grant to Montana CDC

April 2012 - Community Dividend

Tribal college receives $18.9 million for career training initiative

April 2012 - Community Dividend

Twin Cities organization expands role of land banks

Through its acquisition, community lending, and land-banking programs, Twin Cities Community Land Bank is contributing to the Minneapolis-St. Paul area's foreclosure recovery efforts.
Jacob Wascalus
April 2012 - Community Dividend

U.S. Treasury awards $185 million in New Markets Tax Credits to four Ninth District organizations

April 2012 - Community Dividend

Self-employed: To be, or not to be

Unfortunately, that's a question without easy answers
Ronald A. Wirtz
January 2012 - fedgazette

The other, silent flood

Closed-basin regions are struggling with high water levels and no drain plug
Ronald A. Wirtz
January 2012 - fedgazette

Energizing Native economies: Tribes build corporate governance to spur investment and development

Some American Indian tribes are overhauling their corporate governance structures in order to facilitate energy projects and other economic development on tribal lands.
Paula Woessner
January 2012 - Community Dividend

Fed Community Development offices launch community survey initiatives

A new Reserve Bank-led initiative is designed to gather front-line information on economic conditions in low- to moderate-income communities.
Ela Rausch
January 2012 - Community Dividend

Minneapolis Fed launches Ninth District Community Insight report series

January 2012 - Community Dividend

Montana CDC project receives top honor

January 2012 - Community Dividend

Native CDFI News

January 2012 - Community Dividend

Business leaders expect solid growth for their companies in 2012

Business Outlook Poll
Toby Madden
December 2011 - fedgazette

Moderate economic growth expected in 2012

District Economic Outlook
Rob Grunewald, Joe Mahon
December 2011 - fedgazette

A flood of floods

Floods are common in the district, but the floods of 2011 were anything but typical
Ronald A. Wirtz
October 2011 - fedgazette

After the flood

The floods of 2011 will leave financial and other marks on district communities
Ronald A. Wirtz
October 2011 - fedgazette

Minot: Reeling but resilient

Ronald A. Wirtz
October 2011 - fedgazette

Harvest Initiative and Hunkpati Investments: Stirring up economic development on the Crow Creek reservation

The story of how residents of the Crow Creek Indian reservation, a prominent businessman, a church congregation, and two young attorneys came to be deeply involved in improving the reservation's econo
Sandy Gerber
October 2011 - Community Dividend

Little Mogadishu in the All-America City? Somali entrepreneurship in Willmar, Minnesota

Somali immigrants encounter acceptance and some challenges as they establish businesses in a small city in central Minnesota.
Nima Hassan
October 2011 - Community Dividend

Making the New Markets Tax Credit work in Native communities

Some Native communities have had success in attracting New Markets Tax Credit investments, despite unique challenges involved in implementing the program in Indian Country.
Michou Kokodoko
October 2011 - Community Dividend

U.S. Treasury announces 2011 CDFI awards

October 2011 - Community Dividend

Workforce 2020: Uniting business and education in Rochester, Minnesota

A unique initiative led by a broad-based group of community leaders is working to address workforce development issues in Rochester, Minn.
Wudase Tefera
October 2011 - Community Dividend

Early, Broadly, and Through Young Adulthood: A Child Development Perspective on Youth Personal Financial Education

Research suggests that educators should use findings in psychology and behavioral economics to enhance youth personal financial instruction.
Richard M. Todd
September 2011 - Community Development Papers

Booming, and well positioned, but still risk averse

Despite the state’s strong economy, one expert says North Dakota could use more derring-do
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2011 - fedgazette

Cage match: Entrepreneurs vs. the recession

Has the recession taken entrepreneurial tendencies to the canvas?
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2011 - fedgazette

A health check for the job-laying goose

The recession has been rough on business, particularly new ones and their related employment. Can they rebound?
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2011 - fedgazette

A recession postmortem: Why some places fared better than others

Sung Soo Lim
July 2011 - fedgazette

Commerce, USDA release online mapping tools

July 2011 - Community Dividend

Delinquencies and foreclosures in rural areas: A snapshot of the recent performance of mortgages in Michigan's Upper Peninsula

An analysis of newly acquired mortgage data reveals that the Upper Peninsula fared better than other parts of Michigan during the recent foreclosure crisis.
Michael Grover
July 2011 - Community Dividend

Measuring the impact of community development: A conversation with Paul Mattessich of Wilder Research

Community Dividend speaks with Paul Mattessich, executive director of Wilder Research, about how to effectively and affordably measure the impact of community development work.
Ela Rausch
July 2011 - Community Dividend

Minneapolis Fed launches Indian Country Currents site

July 2011 - Community Dividend

Recent demographic data reveal effects of economic slowdown in Indian Country

New data from the U.S. Census Bureau confirm that economic trends on American Indian reservations in the Ninth District worsened or stagnated during the recent recession.
Michael Grover
July 2011 - Community Dividend

Recent rule changes expand definition of community development under the CRA

New modifications to the CRA rules are designed to encourage financial institutions to help stabilize foreclosure-ravaged communities.
Paula Woessner
July 2011 - Community Dividend

Standing receives Minority Small Business Champion Award

July 2011 - Community Dividend

The fine print on tracking establishments

Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2011 - fedgazette

The rural welcome wagon

The loss of young people is widely feared in rural areas, but new research is showing gains among middle-age families
David Fettig
July 2011 - fedgazette

homeWORD receives 2011 Innovation Award

July 2011 - Community Dividend

Base hits, but not a lot of runs

Staffing services firms report improved activity—a positive, if cautious, sign for broader employment
Ronald A. Wirtz
June 2011 - fedgazette

Businesses see expansion over the next four quarters

Business Outlook Poll
Toby Madden
June 2011 - fedgazette

Moderate economic recovery expected to continue

Rob Grunewald, Joe Mahon
June 2011 - fedgazette

Hispanic entrepreneurship grows, but barriers persist

Despite recent progress, Hispanic-owned firms lag behind in some respects. Fortunately, federal and nonprofit agencies offer programs designed to help close the gap.
Michou Kokodoko
April 2011 - Community Dividend

CDFI News

January 2011 - Community Dividend

Envisioning a different type of suburb

An interview with University of Minnesota geographer Brenda Kayzar
Phil Davies
January 2011 - fedgazette

Transportation partnership offers economic hope in north central Montana

For many residents of Montana's Hi-Line region, an innovative transit partnership provides the means to pursue an education, commute to work, or access important services.
Sue Woodrow, Day Soriano
January 2011 - Community Dividend

Businesses are optimistic for 2011

Business Outlook Poll
Toby Madden
December 2010 - fedgazette

Mild Ninth District recovery expected to warm up

District Economic Outlook
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
December 2010 - fedgazette

One order of confidence, please

Businesses in the Ninth District appear more confident, but economic and political concerns remain
Ronald A. Wirtz
December 2010 - fedgazette

Degrees of Job Security

We tend to assume that high-wage workers are recession proof. But a good education offers better protection against job loss than a big paycheck
Terry J. Fitzgerald, Phil Davies, Wonho Chung
December 2010 - The Region

Adopting a place-conscious approach to community development: A conversation with Margery Austin Turner of the Urban Institute

Community Dividend speaks with Margery Austin Turner, Vice President for Research at the Urban Institute's Metropolitan Housing and Communities Policy Center, to learn about her comprehensive, thought
Sandy Gerber
October 2010 - Community Dividend

Are economic development incentives doing their JOBZ?

An interview with university researchers looking at the popular Minnesota program
Joe Mahon
October 2010 - fedgazette

Taking root

Organic farming continues to grow in the Ninth District
Alison Sexton
October 2010 - fedgazette

Interview with Thomas Sargent

New York University economist on the state of modern macro, polar models of bank regulation and the problem of persistently high unemployment
August 2010 - The Region

Help wanted for the economic helpers

Economic development agencies battling tough budgets, the economy and each other in hopes of job retention and growth
Ronald A. Wirtz
August 2010 - fedgazette

Come and get it—please

Banks and credit unions say they have money to lend, but credit markets are still struggling for a variety of reasons.
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2010 - fedgazette

Manufacturers turn the page on poor 2009 exports

Exports slump across states and sectors
Rob Grunewald, Wonho Chung
July 2010 - fedgazette

When half-full feels more like three-quarters

Recession and the Ninth District
Terry J. Fitzgerald, Ronald A. Wirtz, Wonho Chung
July 2010 - fedgazette

Ethics as a building block of economic growth: Global insights and Indian Country models

An effective institutional framework to encourage and manage ethical behavior is a crucial aspect of good governance.
Sue Woodrow
July 2010 - Community Dividend

Fed Governor Duke tours Minneapolis marketplaces

On a recent visit, Federal Reserve Governor Elizabeth Duke toured two culturally diverse marketplaces that have helped revitalize their surrounding neighborhoods.
July 2010 - Community Dividend

North Dakota: The little economic engine that could

Recession and the Ninth District
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2010 - fedgazette

Starting up when the economy's down: A snapshot of Minnesota's new entrepreneurs

During the recent recession, when most people tightened their belts and took fewer financial risks, thousands of entrepreneurs mustered their courage and decided to try business ownership.
Michou Kokodoko
July 2010 - Community Dividend

Despite uncertainty, moderate economic growth expected

Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
June 2010 - fedgazette

Professional services firms expect rebound over the next year

Toby Madden
June 2010 - fedgazette

Sing sweetly (please), employment canary

Survey of staffing firms suggests some—slow—recovery in the jobs market
Ronald A. Wirtz
June 2010 - fedgazette

The Privileges

Book review
Cynthia Baxter
June 2010 - The Region

Union Atlantic

Book review
Ryan Williams
June 2010 - The Region

Awash in Cash

Why do China's banks hold low-yield U.S. Treasuries? A theory of economic transition
Douglas Clement
June 2010 - The Region

Institutions or Individuals?

Different views on financial collapse
June 2010 - The Region

Taxing Risk and the Optimal Regulation of Financial Institutions

An Economic Policy Paper on imposing a tax to eliminate risk externalities from unavoidable government bailouts
Narayana Kocherlakota
June 2010 - The Region

Family Housing Fund launches Twin Cities Community Land Bank

April 2010 - Community Dividend

Horizons program mobilizes communities to address rural poverty

A leadership-development program designed for small, rural towns demonstrates how communities that become aware, engaged, and energized about poverty issues can make change happen.
Joyce Hoelting
April 2010 - Community Dividend

Minneapolis Fed releases two new Community Affairs reports

April 2010 - Community Dividend

No shortage of credit here

Municipal bond market active, with help from Uncle Sam
Ronald A. Wirtz
April 2010 - fedgazette

A slow recovery is under way

District Economic Outlook
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
January 2010 - fedgazette

Looks like another slow year

Toby Madden
January 2010 - fedgazette

Minnesota's Earned Income Credit Program: Utilization by Current and Former Welfare Households and the Impact of Policy Parameters

An analysis of utilization of the State of Minnesota's earned income credit (the Working Family Credit) among current and former welfare recipients.
Donald P. Hirasuna, Thomas F. Stinson
December 2009 - Community Development Papers

2008 was a mixed year for CDCUs, report says

November 2009 - Community Dividend

CRF to launch green loan program for small businesses

November 2009 - Community Dividend

Gender and financial literacy: A conversation with Annamaria Lusardi of Dartmouth College

Community Dividend speaks with Dr. Annamaria Lusardi of Dartmouth College to learn about the gender gap in financial literacy and discuss how financial educators can reach women more effectiv
Ericca Maas
November 2009 - Community Dividend

Overcoming start-up barriers: Native-owned food business serves up lessons learned

The founders of Native American Natural Foods demonstrate that the goal of starting up a well-positioned business on an Indian reservation is attainable, provided certain elements are in place.
Sandy Gerber
November 2009 - Community Dividend

Patch job: repairing the unemployment safety net

State unemployment insurance funds are facing big challenges that could have long-term consequences for employers and workers
Mike Meyers
November 2009 - fedgazette

Report sums up research on social effects of foreclosures

November 2009 - Community Dividend

The L3C: A new business model for socially responsible investing

The low-profit limited liability company, or L3C, is a newly developed form of business that blends attributes of nonprofit and for-profit organizations in order to promote investment in so
Sue Woodrow, Steve Davis
November 2009 - Community Dividend

What effect has the expiration of the federal C.A.R.S, or cash for clunkers, program had on your operations?

District Voices
November 2009 - fedgazette

After the oil rush

In the Williston Basin, less drilling activity has created uncertainty about the future
Phil Davies
September 2009 - fedgazette

OMG! Like, where are all the teen workers?

Teens have been quietly, and increasingly, leaving the labor force
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2009 - fedgazette

The not-as-big three

Chrysler, GM dealerships slashed across the district
Madeline Christensen
September 2009 - fedgazette

A spanking in banking

District banks struggled last year and face tough conditions going forward, but they continue to show good fundamentals to weather the storm
Ronald A. Wirtz, Brianna Wilcox
July 2009 - fedgazette

A spanking in banking: Slide presentation

Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2009 - fedgazette

Ag banks: A walk down (bad) memory lane?

Are conditions ripe for another farm crisis?
Daniel Rozycki
July 2009 - fedgazette

Credit Conditions: Some snap and crackle, but no pop

Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2009 - fedgazette

Fed survey shows widespread increases in net worth preceded the current financial crisis

The latest release of the Fed's triennial Survey of Consumer Finances shows significant gains in Americans' net worth before the financial crisis erupted in late 2007.
Richard M. Todd
July 2009 - Community Dividend

Historic performance indicators

July 2009 - fedgazette

Methodology: Credit conditions polls of businesses and financial professionals

July 2009 - fedgazette

Revisiting the place-based CDC model: A conversation with Brian Miller of Seward Redesign

Community Dividend speaks with Brian Miller, executive director of Seward Redesign in Minneapolis, to learn how neighborhood-based community development corporations are coping in these uncer
Michou Kokodoko
July 2009 - Community Dividend

A nice place to visit, but ...

Tourism can spark economic growth, but public funding of the industry is questionable
Phil Davies
May 2009 - fedgazette

Land banks as a neighborhood recovery strategy: A conversation with Dan Kildee of Michigan's Genesee County Land Bank

Community Dividend speaks with Dan Kildee, Genesee County treasurer and board chair of the Genesee County Land Bank, to learn more about how land banking is contributing to redevelopment in F
Michael Grover
May 2009 - Community Dividend

Wait for us

Like everywhere else, it seems, debt among state and local governments is rising
Ronald A. Wirtz
May 2009 - fedgazette

Where have all the tourists gone?

Leisure travel has been hit hard in many parts of the district. Tourism businesses and promoters have been forced to adapt.
Phil Davies
May 2009 - fedgazette

Just the facts, ma’am

Crime patterns in the district vary widely, but explaining differences and trends is difficult
Douglas Clement
March 2009 - fedgazette

Strengthening the Earned Income Tax Credit: Alternatives to refund anticipation loans

A collaborative effort in the Ninth Federal Reserve District has created an alternative to traditional refund anticipation loans that gives workers fast access to tax refunds at little cost.
Sandy Gerber
March 2009 - Community Dividend

The mystery of crime

Will the recession cause a surge in crime? Economic theory suggests it might, but empirical evidence for the widely held notion is far from conclusive
Douglas Clement
March 2009 - fedgazette

All signs point to a down 2009

Business Outlook Poll Results
Toby Madden
January 2009 - fedgazette

Fed releases report on concentrated poverty

January 2009 - Community Dividend

Has your company’s access to credit deteriorated over the past three months?

District Map
January 2009 - fedgazette

Ninth District economy slips into recession

Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
January 2009 - fedgazette

A question of credit

The credit enhancement market is in flux, which leads to some navel gazing over municipal bond offerings
Ronald A. Wirtz
November 2008 - fedgazette

Auction-rate fireworks: Ooh, aah, ouch

Once a useful and sophisticated tool for cheap financing, issuers discover the dark side of more exotic bonds
Ronald A. Wirtz
November 2008 - fedgazette

Bring your troubles, and hit me

Wisconsin State Roundup
November 2008 - fedgazette

Economy: Funny odd, not funny ha-ha

Minnesota State Roundup
November 2008 - fedgazette

How are tighter credit markets affecting commercial building and real estate sales in your area?

District Voices
November 2008 - fedgazette

Oglala Sioux and State of South Dakota sign historic lien-filing agreement

A newly signed UCC lien-filing agreement between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota is designed to facilitate business and consumer lending on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
Sue Woodrow, Dani Daugherty
November 2008 - Community Dividend

The bonds of debt

The recent financial crisis blew a hole in the municipal bond market. But it has been shifting for more than a year.
Ronald A. Wirtz
November 2008 - fedgazette

U.S. Treasury announces 2008 CDFI awards

November 2008 - Community Dividend

Whistling past the graveyard

North Dakota State Roundup
November 2008 - fedgazette

A "Six Forces" view of microenterprise development

What happens when we apply a prominent, private sector, management-analysis framework to the world of microenterprise development organizations?
Michou Kokodoko
September 2008 - Community Dividend

Hey, kids, we're here

South Dakota State Roundup
September 2008 - fedgazette

Ideas on Growth

A summary of Robert Lucas’ conference keynote address
September 2008 - The Region

Moving the Middle Forward

A conference at the Minneapolis Fed looks to the economic future of the Midwest
Joe Mahon
September 2008 - The Region

Native CDFIs work toward a new economic reality in South Dakota

Native community development financial institutions (CDFIs) are organizations that provide loans and financial services to underserved Native American communities. The Ninth Federal Reserve District
Sandy Gerber
September 2008 - Community Dividend

Turning equity into opportunity: Montana fund helps Native entrepreneurs enter the financial mainstream

A new small business funding program from the State of Montana is designed to address the severe shortage of equity among entrepreneurs in Indian Country.
Sue Woodrow, Philip Belangie
September 2008 - Community Dividend

A soft district economy expected

Ninth District Mid-Year Economic Forecast
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
July 2008 - fedgazette

Are the recently issued “economic stimulus” tax rebates having an effect on your business or businesses in your area?

District Voices
July 2008 - fedgazette

Plowing up more dough

South Dakota State Roundup
July 2008 - fedgazette

Professional services firms expect sluggish activity over the next year

Results of the annual survey of professional services firms
Toby Madden
July 2008 - fedgazette

Rosy, or smoky economic glasses?

Wisconsin State Roundup
July 2008 - fedgazette

Tourism glass: Half full, or half empty?

Michigan State Roundup
July 2008 - fedgazette

Laying the Foundation

Researchers look for better ways to quantify the benefits of investment in early childhood development.
Kathy Cobb
June 2008 - The Region

Wanted: Entrepreneurs

(Just don't ask for a job description) If entrepreneurship is so important, why don't we know more about it?
Ronald A. Wirtz
June 2008 - The Region

A pink slip for JOBZ?

Minnesota State Roundup
May 2008 - fedgazette

Credit scoring and the credit-underserved population

There are new means of credit scoring in development that can help underserved consumers enter the mainstream American credit market.
Ericca Maas
May 2008 - Community Dividend

Crow Nation, State of Montana sign UCC filing compact

May 2008 - Community Dividend

Store clearance

Retail vacancy rates are up in the district, especially for strip malls
Joe Mahon
May 2008 - fedgazette

U.P. tribes gambling on expansion

Michigan State Roundup
May 2008 - fedgazette

Both sides of the pork trough

Earmarks are easy to want, easier to criticize. Though inefficient at a number of levels, the political economy of pork barrel spending suggests some benefits are also ignored.
Ronald A. Wirtz, Douglas Clement
March 2008 - fedgazette

Dual-edged earmarks

Earmarks can meet local needs; they can also leave locals hanging.
Douglas Clement
March 2008 - fedgazette

On a wing and a subsidy

Is the Essential Air Service program still vital after 30 years?
Kathy Cobb
March 2008 - fedgazette

This little piggy came home

Earmarks are plentiful in the Ninth District and vary widely.
Douglas Clement
March 2008 - fedgazette

We're Mars; everyone else is Venus

South Dakota State Roundup
March 2008 - fedgazette

A growing cornucopia of organics

Organic farming in the Ninth Federal Reserve District continues to sprout in fields and on dinner plates.
Dave Walter
January 2008 - fedgazette

A slower growing economy in 2008

2008 Ninth District economic forecast
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
January 2008 - fedgazette

Expanding the success of the Earned Income Tax Credit

A patchwork of initiatives is raising awareness of the Earned Income Tax Credit, which is the leading federal program for boosting the incomes of the working poor.
Emily Sachs
January 2008 - Community Dividend

Mixed bag for 2008

2008 poll of Ninth District business leaders
Toby Madden
January 2008 - fedgazette

One positive step at a time

Michigan State Roundup
January 2008 - fedgazette

Profiting by not doing so

Minnesota State Roundup
January 2008 - fedgazette

The Wal-Mart effect: Poison or antidote for local communities?

The debate over Wal-Mart is a heated one. How can you tell whether the world’s largest retailer is good or bad for your community?
Terry J. Fitzgerald, Ronald A. Wirtz
January 2008 - fedgazette

Treasury announces New Markets Tax Credit allocations

January 2008 - Community Dividend

Addressing the Trade-offs: Market Discipline, Stability and Communication

Top of the Ninth
Gary H. Stern
December 2007 - The Region

Enriching Children, Enriching the Nation: Public Investment in High-Quality Prekindergarten

Book Review
Rob Grunewald, Bjorn Markeson
December 2007 - The Region

Community benefits agreements: A tool for more equitable development?

A type of contract known as a community benefits agreement (CBA) has emerged in the past decade to help participants achieve advance agreement on how some of the benefits of economic development proje
Sandy Gerber
November 2007 - Community Dividend

HP announces microenterprise development grants

November 2007 - Community Dividend

I'm outta here, but I'll be back

Wisconsin State Roundup
November 2007 - fedgazette

Native CDFI awards announced

November 2007 - Community Dividend

Welcome home, please

South Dakota State Roundup
November 2007 - fedgazette

A game of subsidy chicken

Minnesota State Roundup
September 2007 - fedgazette

Cities vie for GE facility

Montana State Roundup
September 2007 - fedgazette

Ninth District Franchise Growth by State

Franchise growth in Ninth District states.
September 2007 - fedgazette

On Public Policy and Economic Education

Top of the Ninth
Gary H. Stern
September 2007 - The Region

Public lands getting a jump-start from utilities

Michigan State Roundup
September 2007 - fedgazette

What is a small business? Inc(reasing)

Business registrations have exploded in district states.
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2007 - fedgazette

A new economic era for Native communities

In remarks delivered at the 2007 South Dakota Indian Business Conference, Elsie Meeks encourages American Indians to look to the future and recognize that they cannot build sovereign, independent nati
Elsie Meeks
July 2007 - Community Dividend

A word about do-it-yourselfers

Firms without employees offer insights and caveats to the trends of small business.
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2007 - fedgazette

It's a jungle out there

The economic Darwinism of small business.
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2007 - fedgazette

Letters to the Editor

Letter to the editor regarding the May 2007 fedgazette on telecommunications.
July 2007 - fedgazette

Professional services firms expect businesses to keep spending, consumers to reduce spending

Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis annual survey of professional service firms.
Toby Madden
July 2007 - fedgazette

The state of small business: Small is tough, but still beautiful

Though competitive pressures are seemingly everywhere, small businesses continue to anchor local and state economies.
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2007 - fedgazette

West outpaces east in district economic growth

Mid-year Ninth District economic forecast.
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
July 2007 - fedgazette

Broadband: Not quite universal

Given the state of rural broadband, extending universal service to high-speed Internet access may be premature.
Phil Davies
May 2007 - fedgazette

Dialing for dollars

Rural telephone companies in the district collect millions of dollars annually in universal service subsidies. Has the time come to let them fend for themselves?
Phil Davies
May 2007 - fedgazette

Fixing universal service

Proposed measures would curb the costs of subsidizing rural phone service.
Phil Davies
May 2007 - fedgazette

Foreign Trade Zones

A new hammer in the economic development toolbox, but mostly a pillow in the district.
Ronald A. Wirtz
May 2007 - fedgazette

Letter to the Editor

Letter to the Editor regarding fedgazette on Urban Sprawl.
May 2007 - fedgazette

Microenterprise development in the U.S.: Past, present and future

To learn more about the history of microenterprise development organizations in the U.S. and the challenges these organizations face, Community Dividend spoke with Elaine Edgcomb, director of the Aspe
Michou Kokodoko
May 2007 - Community Dividend

Minneapolis launches Alternative Financing Program

May 2007 - Community Dividend

Claire Strom on James J. Hill's legacy and influence on the northern Great Plains

Interview with Claire Strom, author of "Profiting from the Plains: The Great Northern Railway and Corporate Development of the American West"
David Fettig
March 2007 - fedgazette

Coping strategies

Sprawl is often condemned, but most critiques hold no economic water. Still, a few are valid, and policy fixes may exist.
Douglas Clement
March 2007 - fedgazette

Do fence me in?

Rural sprawl happens when people try to grab their slice of paradise in the country. Critics view it as devastating; newcomers are just looking for a better life.
Douglas Clement
March 2007 - fedgazette

Lost best place

As city dwellers seek bucolic bliss, sprawl is spreading to the countryside. Problem, or opportunity?
Douglas Clement
March 2007 - fedgazette

Wide open spaces

Incentive-based tools to protect rural land from sprawl are increasingly popular, but some doubt their effectiveness.
Douglas Clement
March 2007 - fedgazette

Business leaders see growth in 2007

Survey of Ninth District business leaders.
Toby Madden
January 2007 - fedgazette

Moderate economic growth expected in 2007

2007 Ninth District Economic Forecast
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
January 2007 - fedgazette

News flash: Small-market papers prosper

In small cities and towns in the district, the demise of newspapers has been greatly exaggerated.
Joe Mahon
January 2007 - fedgazette

Power company selling land

Michigan State Roundup
January 2007 - fedgazette

Ragged auto coattails

Minnesota State Roundup
January 2007 - fedgazette

Running a marathon, underground

South Dakota State Roundup
January 2007 - fedgazette

When Chicken Little is wrong

Despite fears, the sky didn't fall on Michigan's Upper Peninsula when Sawyer Air Force Base closed.
Kathy Cobb
January 2007 - fedgazette

African American enterprises on the rise in Minnesota

Minnesota's African American entrepreneurs are likely to face a host of challenges that threaten to block their path to success. Fortunately, a network of organizations is ready to support African Am
Michou Kokodoko
November 2006 - Community Dividend

Mexico honors CLUES leader

November 2006 - Community Dividend

Newly formed business alliance promotes Montana's "Indianpreneurs"

The newly formed Montana Indian Business Alliance focuses on strengthening tribal sovereignty and economies by drawing attention to the important role the private sector can play in Indian Country.
Sue Woodrow
November 2006 - Community Dividend

Circle, or square?

Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2006 - The Region

High and dry

Almost a decade after the Flood of 1997, the Grand Forks metro area has made quite a comeback.
Phil Davies
September 2006 - fedgazette

Let it RAIN, times two

North Dakota State Roundup
September 2006 - fedgazette

Roll the credits … and the tax incentives

Cities, states and even countries spar for film production business, but at what cost?
Kathy Cobb
September 2006 - fedgazette

The Hidden Economy of Nonprofits

We know surprisingly little about nonprofits. Does it matter? Do they?
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2006 - The Region

Tribes roll lucky seven in high court

Wisconsin State Roundup
September 2006 - fedgazette

Who needs downtowns, anyway?

Were historic business districts worth saving? City leaders thought so.
Phil Davies
September 2006 - fedgazette

Charity case: Trends in giving

Measures of giving are not always straightforward.
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2006 - fedgazette

Connecting the nonprofit growth dots

Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2006 - fedgazette

District economic growth remains on track

Ninth District economic forecast.
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
July 2006 - fedgazette

Has a stronger Canadian dollar affected Canadian visits to your business or community?

District Voices
July 2006 - fedgazette

Missing the jackpot, only not

Michigan State Roundup
July 2006 - fedgazette

Professional services firms anticipate higher profits, tighter labor supply

Accountants, architects, engineers and other professional services firms did well over the past year and expect to continue to grow over the next four quarters, according to results of the first surve
Manal Alam, Toby Madden
July 2006 - fedgazette

State unveils major power and energy project

North Dakota State Roundup
July 2006 - fedgazette

The economy’s middle child

Though a major part of the economy, the nonprofit sector is poorly understood and maybe a tad underappreciated.
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2006 - fedgazette

The leader of the nonprofit pack

Foundations grow in number and size; effect is multifold.
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2006 - fedgazette

Tracking the elusive nonprofit economy

Data are hard to find, harder to compare.
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2006 - fedgazette

Tribal-citizen entrepreneurship: What does it mean for Indian Country, and how can tribes support it?

A condensed version of a speech Professor Cornell delivered at the Montana Indian Business Conference in Great Falls, Mont., on February 2, 2006.
Stephen Cornell
July 2006 - Community Dividend

What factors are associated with changes in nonprofit receipts?

Non-profit organizations play a key role in providing services to a broad section of society. Nonprofit organizations include, but are not limited to, hospitals, foundations, arts organizations, polit
Rob Grunewald
July 2006 - fedgazette

From Almshouses to Townhouses

The power of eminent domain isn't what it used to be
Arthur J. Rolnick, Phil Davies
June 2006 - The Region

The Cost of Kelo

Contrary to last year's U.S. Supreme Court ruling, using eminent domain to foster economic development diminishes the public good.
Arthur J. Rolnick, Phil Davies
June 2006 - The Region

Letters to the Editor

Letters to the Editor: Referencing fedgazette topic of eminent domain.
May 2006 - fedgazette

Nothing ventured ...

Montana State Roundup
May 2006 - fedgazette

Pension deficit disorder

Local and state public pensions are trying to get traction on a slippery funding slope.
Ronald A. Wirtz
May 2006 - fedgazette

A super model: New secured transaction code offers legal uniformity, economic promise for Indian Country

A recently completed model law that covers a type of commerce called "secured transactions" could provide the legal structure and consistency American Indian tribes need to facilitate borrowing from o
Paula Woessner
March 2006 - Community Dividend

Challenging the big stick

Phil Davies
March 2006 - fedgazette

Condemned prosperity

The use of eminent domain for private development may benefit district communities, but it blights the overall economy.
Phil Davies
March 2006 - fedgazette

Indianpreneurs

Small business development holds great promise for American Indian economic progress, but big obstacles remain.
Douglas Clement
March 2006 - fedgazette

Minnesota loan fund offers capital through community collaboration

Numerous small businesses and nonprofit organizations located in rural communities throughout Minnesota are benefiting from an innovative, nonprofit economic development loan fund known as the Minneso
Scott Martin
March 2006 - Community Dividend

Putting a price, and a cap, on pain and suffering

How the current medical malpractice crisis affects the Ninth District.
Kathy Cobb
March 2006 - fedgazette

The wealth (and poverty) of Indian nations

Small businesses and tribal colleges offer fresh hope in Indian Country. They also face great hurdles.
Douglas Clement
March 2006 - fedgazette

Thomas J. Holmes on Wal-Mart's location strategy

Holmes describes Wal-Mart's location strategy and possible implications for the Ninth District.
David Fettig
March 2006 - fedgazette

Tribal trends

While economic conditions have improved for American Indians living on reservations, poverty remains prevalent, and tribes face deep challenges in their efforts to develop.
Douglas Clement
March 2006 - fedgazette

District business leaders expect modest overall growth in 2006

Toby Madden
January 2006 - fedgazette

District economic expansion to continue in 2006

2006 Ninth District Economic Forecast
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
January 2006 - fedgazette

Yeah, we got that

Minnesota State Roundup
January 2006 - fedgazette

Characteristics of Shocked and Nonshocked District Counties

Table: Characteristics of Shocked and Nonshocked District Counties
November 2005 - fedgazette

County employment: Shocks and rebounds

Lots of counties experience major job loss, but why they do and how well they recover is more of a mystery.
Terry J. Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Ball, Mark Holland
November 2005 - fedgazette

Ellsworth Air Force Base: BRAC in business

South Dakota State Roundup
November 2005 - fedgazette

Hands off our property

North Dakota State Roundup
November 2005 - fedgazette

Job shocks: Resuscitation or suffocation?

How local economies react after suffering a major decline in employment.
Ronald A. Wirtz
November 2005 - fedgazette

Job shocks: When lightning threatens again

Colin Hartman, Joe Larson
November 2005 - fedgazette

Katrina reaches into the Ninth District

Toby Madden
November 2005 - fedgazette

Results of tourism development are largely positive, study says

November 2005 - Community Dividend

VITA initiative provides free tax preparation in North Central Montana

A coalition led by Consumer Credit Counseling Services of Montana provides free tax preparation assistance to residents of the state's North Central region.
Shannon Augare
November 2005 - Community Dividend

Wing and a prayer?

Minnesota State Roundup
November 2005 - fedgazette

Big power, big money

South Dakota State Roundup
September 2005 - fedgazette

CDFIs at a crossroads: A conversation with Mark Pinsky of National Community Capital Association

Community development financial institutions, or CDFIs, are specialized entities that provide lending, investments, and other financial services in economically distressed communities. Community Divi
Michael Grover
September 2005 - Community Dividend

Come hither, biotech

States, regions and universities are scrambling to be part of the bio-revolution. What's the rush? The prize? Is there more than one race, and is there more than one winner?
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2005 - fedgazette

District mid-cap stocks lower year-to-date

Colin Hartman, Rob Grunewald
September 2005 - fedgazette

Foundation, tribes create charitable fund

September 2005 - Community Dividend

Model tribal commercial code completed

September 2005 - Community Dividend

North Dakota ranked safest state

Dan Mayberry, Rob Grunewald
September 2005 - fedgazette

Paying the piper

Somebody has to pony up billions of dollars to upgrade drinking water and sewer systems throughout the district.
Phil Davies
September 2005 - fedgazette

Pipe dreams

The district is awash in expensive projects to bring water to sparsely populated areas. Are they worth it?
Phil Davies
September 2005 - fedgazette

Tapping into savings

No-build approaches and alternative technologies can reduce the cost of water upgrades in small towns.
Phil Davies
September 2005 - fedgazette

The last best marketing ploy

Montana State Roundup
September 2005 - fedgazette

Twin Cities refugee groups tackle community development

Refugee groups in Minnesota are expanding their mutual assistance efforts to include community development activities.
Bo Thao
September 2005 - Community Dividend

Whacked UP: Upper Peninsula gets blunt end of the budget stick

Michigan State Roundup
September 2005 - fedgazette

You pull the handle; I'll run to the bank

Wisconsin State Roundup
September 2005 - fedgazette

Angels we have heard on high

Angels are looking out for district entrepreneurs.
Frank Jossi
July 2005 - fedgazette

BRAC-ish waters

South Dakota State Roundup
July 2005 - fedgazette

District economy continues to grow

Mid-year Ninth District Economic Forecast
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
July 2005 - fedgazette

Double Dakota hit

North Dakota State Roundup
July 2005 - fedgazette

Much ado, and much more to do

Minnesota State Roundup
July 2005 - fedgazette

Thanks, we've got one

North Dakota State Roundup
July 2005 - fedgazette

Early Childhood Development on a Large Scale

Rob Grunewald and Art Rolnick's proposal for investment in early childhood education.
Arthur J. Rolnick, Rob Grunewald
June 2005 - The Region

A tax break runs through it

Montana State Roundup
May 2005 - fedgazette

Close-knit neighborhoods

Home-buying trends carve new niches in home types.
Ronald A. Wirtz
May 2005 - fedgazette

Who's afraid of big boxes?

Montana State Roundup
May 2005 - fedgazette

A dynamic economy means churning employment

Rob Grunewald
March 2005 - fedgazette

Missing the bus

Many worry over the loss of intercity bus and train service. But local, on-demand transit service is more critical for rural mobility.
Phil Davies
March 2005 - fedgazette

Native Financial Education Coalition works to strengthen tribal economies

By working collaboratively, Native Financial Education Coalition members seek to increase awareness about the need for financial education in Native communities.
Joanna Donohoe
March 2005 - Community Dividend

Singing the intercity blues

Phil Davies
March 2005 - fedgazette

Tribal colleges can be a key to Native entrepreneurship

For many American Indian tribes, tribal colleges are becoming a vital tool for promoting Native entrepreneurship.
Brad Bly
March 2005 - Community Dividend

Bismarck: raking in the cash, unsure how to spend it

North Dakota State Roundup
January 2005 - fedgazette

Business leaders very optimistic

Survey outlook best in 14 years
Toby Madden
January 2005 - fedgazette

Community banks full of change

Small-town banks thrive in new banking environment, but face myriad competitors.
Ronald A. Wirtz
January 2005 - fedgazette

District economy to expand in 2005

Ninth District Economic Forecast
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
January 2005 - fedgazette

Film office ends its run

Wisconsin State Roundup
January 2005 - fedgazette

Help wanted, again

As the economy improves, labor shortages are likely to be on the minds of employers more often.
Ronald A. Wirtz
January 2005 - fedgazette

Ready, set dance

Employers adjust to supply/demand of labor markets.
Ronald A. Wirtz
January 2005 - fedgazette

Study: expand support for early childhood ed

South Dakota State Roundup
January 2005 - fedgazette

Unconventional wisdom

District convention centers weathered the recession, but the outlook is cloudy.
Colbey Sullivan
January 2005 - fedgazette

Banking trends in a county near you

Geographic differences are not all that great between urban, fringe and rural counties.
Jason Schmidt
November 2004 - fedgazette

FedACH lowers rates, expands services in Mexico

November 2004 - Community Dividend

Federal development funding lower in rural areas, study finds

November 2004 - Community Dividend

In banking, less can equal more

Though consolidation continues, banking services have nonetheless expanded considerably throughout the Ninth District.
Jason Schmidt, Ronald A. Wirtz
November 2004 - fedgazette

Minnesota Rural Partners president receives SBA awards

November 2004 - Community Dividend

Minnesota launches minority homeownership initiative

November 2004 - Community Dividend

VITA sites provide outreach, tax help to low-income workers

Millions of Americans could receive valuable refunds during the next tax season, provided they file for a federal tax credit designed to assist low-income people. A related program providing free tax
Brad Bly
November 2004 - Community Dividend

With support, securitization could boost community development industry

For community economic development lenders, selling loans to a secondary market can be an effective recapitalization strategy.
Devon Pohlman
November 2004 - Community Dividend

A rainbow coalition

Immigration is changing the face of the Ninth District, though still slowly in many parts.
Phil Davies
September 2004 - fedgazette

Secured Transaction Codes: An Important Tool for Tribal Economic and Housing Development

A discussion of how commercial codes are important tools for enabling and supporting tribal economic and housing development by improving access to commercial and consumer credit.
Sue Woodrow
September 2004 - Community Development Papers

HP awards grant to Neighborhood Development Center

August 2004 - Community Dividend

SBA launches new Native development initiative

August 2004 - Community Dividend

Solid growth expected for district economy

2004 Mid-Year Ninth District Economic Forecast
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
July 2004 - fedgazette

Business is open on Venus

Much is made about gender differences, but do those differences transfer to business owners?
Ronald A. Wirtz
May 2004 - fedgazette

Is gray the new gold?

The elderly are often portrayed as an economic burden, but many see seniors as a target market.
Douglas Clement
May 2004 - fedgazette

Running the gauntlet

Women today have unprecedented opportunities to start businesses, but a wide assortment of hurdles remains.
May 2004 - fedgazette

Four funerals and a wedding

We're growing older and it won't be cheap
Douglas Clement
March 2004 - fedgazette

Graying of the Ninth

Ninth District counties are older than most. Terms like “demographic time bomb” exaggerate the situation, but our aging population presents significant economic challenges-and opportunities
Douglas Clement
March 2004 - fedgazette

People 65 and Over as a Percent of Total Population 2000 and People 65 and Over as a Percent of Total Population 2020

Population Maps
March 2004 - fedgazette

Welcome to retirement. Now back to work

Will the district’s aging population affect its labor supply and will our economy suffer?
Douglas Clement
March 2004 - fedgazette

Why 65?

Origins of the official retirement age and current trends and policies in other countries
Douglas Clement
March 2004 - fedgazette

An economic expansion with jobs expected in 2004

2004 Ninth District Economic Forecast
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
January 2004 - fedgazette

Business outlook best in four years

fedgazette Business Outlook Poll
Toby Madden
January 2004 - fedgazette

From dead spot to data hot spot

Wireless broadband has promising opportunities in, and for, rural areas of the district
Frank Jossi
January 2004 - fedgazette

Building Capacity for Success: The Fed's role in community economic development

Top of the Ninth
Gary H. Stern
December 2003 - The Region

The ABCs of Early Childhood Development

Report from a conference on the economics of early childhood development.
Kathy Cobb
December 2003 - The Region

A conversation with ... Chuck Johnson of the State of Minnesota Department of Human Services

Community Dividend speaks with Chuck Johnson of the State of Minnesota Department of Human Services about issues affecting low-income people.
November 2003 - Community Dividend

Charitable giving rates follow the economy and personal income

Rob Grunewald
November 2003 - fedgazette

Is your city or region experiencing a jobless economic recovery?

District Voices
November 2003 - fedgazette

North Dakota needs to think small (firms), then big (exports)

Opinion-Letter to the Editor
Matthew Mohr
November 2003 - fedgazette

Powering the assembly line

Long-term drivers behind manufacturing health may need some repair
Ronald A. Wirtz
November 2003 - fedgazette

Big bang biotech?

Many say a “bio” revolution is under way, but complex logistics and other factors make it hard to predict the who-where-when of its economic impact in the district
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2003 - fedgazette

Biotech by any other measure

Without a standard way to measure biotech, some other indicators are worth a look
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2003 - fedgazette

Cash me out

Record numbers seek debt relief through bankruptcy
Frank Jossi
September 2003 - fedgazette

County tax base rises

Michigan State Roundup
September 2003 - fedgazette

Courting clusters

A look at the latest economic development rage: luring groups of similar and interrelated businesses
Phil Davies
September 2003 - fedgazette

Has your summer tourism season lived up to expectations? How does it compare so far with last year?

District Voices
September 2003 - fedgazette

The Ripley factor, believe it

Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2003 - fedgazette

The next biotech frontier: weights and measures

How to measure the biotech industry remains a mystery.
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2003 - fedgazette

Workforce quality top consideration for Minnesota companies

A major issue in location decisions
Naomi Cytron, Toby Madden
September 2003 - fedgazette

A conversation with ... Kou Vang of JB Realty

Community Dividend speaks with Kou Vang, a Hmong business leader, about credit availability and the economic evolution of the Twin Cities Hmong community.
August 2003 - Community Dividend

Credit availability: A snapshot of the Hmong business community in Minneapolis and St. Paul

A Federal Reserve study examines credit markets from the borrowers' perspective
Arthur J. Rolnick, David Fettig
August 2003 - Community Dividend

Fed luncheon focuses on credit access in the Twin Cities Hmong community

Lenders, community development professionals and small business owners gathered in St. Paul to discuss lessons learned from the Federal Reserve's study of credit access in the Twin Cities Hmong commun
Paula Woessner
August 2003 - Community Dividend

Linking immigrants to farming opportunities

For immigrants in the Twin Cities area, farming is a source of income, opportunity, and independence.
Devon Idstrom
August 2003 - Community Dividend

New Minnesota capital fund launched

August 2003 - Community Dividend

The Lakota Fund receives grant

August 2003 - Community Dividend

Low-key expansion continues for district

Ninth District Mid-Year Economic Forecast
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
July 2003 - fedgazette

Minnesota leads district in patents issued

Rob Grunewald
July 2003 - fedgazette

Using Economics to Cool Down the Environment

2002-2003 Minneapolis Fed's annual student essay contest winner.
Marissa Benson
June 2003 - The Region

District manufacturers: tough 2002, cautiously optimistic 2003

Results of the Minneapolis Fed's winter survey of manufacturers.
Toby Madden
May 2003 - fedgazette

Letters to the Editor

Opinion: Response to early childhood development and gambling articles in the fedgazette
May 2003 - fedgazette

Bibliography

Early Childhood Development: Economic Development with a High Public Return
Arthur J. Rolnick, Rob Grunewald
March 2003 - fedgazette

Cost Estimate to Educate all 3- and 4-Year-Old Children from Low-Income Families in Minnesota at a Two-Year, High-Quality ECDP

Table
March 2003 - fedgazette

Early Childhood Development: Economic Development with a High Public Return

Arthur J. Rolnick, Rob Grunewald
March 2003 - fedgazette

Early childhood development = economic development

Editorial
Arthur J. Rolnick, Rob Grunewald
March 2003 - fedgazette

Few big winners

Many believe American Indian tribes are swimming in cash, thanks to their casinos. In fact, very few tribes have really hit the jackpot
Douglas Clement
March 2003 - fedgazette

Gambling: A sure thing?

An in-depth look at Ninth District gambling, from state lotteries to Indian casinos to Internet gambling.
Douglas Clement
March 2003 - fedgazette

Indian Casino Revenue and Economic Change

Table: Ninth District American Indian Reservations
March 2003 - fedgazette

Milking the new buffalo

Casinos are a major source of new wealth for many Indian tribes in the Ninth District and both Indians and non-Indians seek the profits they yield. But too little discussion of late has focused on the
Douglas Clement
March 2003 - fedgazette

Not a great bet

Lotteries and other forms of government-sanctioned gambling have spread rapidly across the Ninth District. What kind of jackpot do they really deliver to state and local governments?
Douglas Clement
March 2003 - fedgazette

Perry School Preschool's Estimated Impact per Program Participant, Benefit/Cost Analysis

Table
March 2003 - fedgazette

Perry School Preschool's Estimated Impact per Program Participant, Real Internal Rate of Return

Table
March 2003 - fedgazette

Profile of a gambling district

We love to gamble, and we've developed dozens of ways to do it
Douglas Clement
March 2003 - fedgazette

Shares of Gambling Expenditure, 2000

Chart: Ninth District Gambling Expenditure, 2000
March 2003 - fedgazette

Taking food from mouths?

Do lottery tickets and other forms of gambling compete with essentials in the household budget? Yes, says a recent economic analysis, but that's not necessarily a bad thing
Douglas Clement
March 2003 - fedgazette

A jobless expansion isn't all bad news

Rob Grunewald
January 2003 - fedgazette

Business leaders are slightly optimistic for 2003

Business Outlook Poll
Toby Madden
January 2003 - fedgazette

Designing a brain drain plug

States create incentives to keep their best and brightest
Ronald A. Wirtz
January 2003 - fedgazette

District economy to expand modestly

2003 Ninth District Economic Forecast
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
January 2003 - fedgazette

Patterns of the young and restless

Seemingly obvious migration patterns belie the many reasons why and where people move.
Ronald A. Wirtz
January 2003 - fedgazette

Retention/out-migration of college graduates, by state

Retention/out-migration by Ninth District States
Ronald A. Wirtz
January 2003 - fedgazette

CDFI Fund awards NACTA grants

November 2002 - Community Dividend

Federal Reserve Governor Bies tours St. Paul neighborhoods

Federal Reserve Governor Susan Schmidt Bies began her first official visit to the Ninth District with a community development tour of two inner-city neighborhoods in St. Paul.
Paula Woessner
November 2002 - Community Dividend

First Accounts awards grants

November 2002 - Community Dividend

Indian business groups receive grants

November 2002 - Community Dividend

More than just a pretty place?

Natural amenities offer some rural counties a leg up in attracting people, but economic prosperity does not necessarily follow
Ronald A. Wirtz
November 2002 - fedgazette

Ninth District Nonmetro Recreational Counties 2000

Map
November 2002 - fedgazette

Ninth District Rural Counties: Natural Amenities and Population Change 1990-2000

Map
November 2002 - fedgazette

Pay dirt or fool's gold

Ninth District communities continue to argue over the wisdom of hosting hardrock mines. Do small towns strike it rich with metal mining or do they simply get the shaft?
Douglas Clement
November 2002 - fedgazette

The prices—right

The toughest problem in metal mining's future will be making prices reflect all the costs
Douglas Clement
November 2002 - fedgazette

Wisconsin commission receives Pioneer Award

November 2002 - Community Dividend

A labor vacuum with no population suction

Declining rural populations could have labor consequences for metro regions
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2002 - fedgazette

A trip through the data wringer

Table: Ninth District Rural Census Summary
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2002 - fedgazette

Boomers, babies and bye-bye Bobby

Shifting age composition the result of more than just young folks leaving
Elizabeth Holmes
September 2002 - fedgazette

Business bankruptcy filings rise

Rob Grunewald
September 2002 - fedgazette

Census recap: population trends all over the district map

September 2002 - fedgazette

Data don't tell the whole story

The numbers might look good, but they can mask poor conditions in some counties
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2002 - fedgazette

Minnesota Percent Change in Population 1990—2000

Map
September 2002 - fedgazette

Montana Percent Change in Population 1990—2000

Map
September 2002 - fedgazette

North Dakota Percent Change in Population 1990—2000

Map
September 2002 - fedgazette

Percent Change in Per Capita Personal Income 1990—2000

Ninth District States Maps
September 2002 - fedgazette

Rural Census: Half full or half empty?

At first glance, the latest census paints a gloomy picture for much of the rural Ninth District. A closer look shows not all rural counties are doing poorly and suggests some reasons why
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2002 - fedgazette

South Dakota Percent Change in Population 1990—2000

Map
September 2002 - fedgazette

Stand by your county, man

Despite decline, counties still searching, hoping for answers
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2002 - fedgazette

The Affordable Housing Shortage: Considering the Problem, Causes and Solutions

The author's data analysis concludes that a shortage of income is largely behind the housing affordability problem.
Ron J. Feldman
September 2002 - The Region

Upper Peninsula of Michigan Percent Change in Population 1990—2000

Map
September 2002 - fedgazette

What is the outlook for funding from outside sources (local, state and federal) for your community, organization or institution? Are tight budgets elsewhere having a local impact?

District Voices
September 2002 - fedgazette

What's Under the Performance Hood

Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2002 - fedgazette

Wisconsin Percent Change in Population 1990—2000

Map
September 2002 - fedgazette

A conversation with ... Wafiq Fannoun and Hussein Samatar

Community Dividend discusses Islamic financing with Wafiq Fannoun, business development specialist at Northside Residents Redevelopment Countil, and Hussein Samatar, a small business banking
August 2002 - Community Dividend

Alternative financing: Issues and opportunities for lenders and interest-averse populations

There is great demand among Muslims and certain other faith-based populations for alternative financial products that will provide access to credit in a manner consistent with their religious beliefs.
Nikki Foster, Nicole Bennett, Margaret Tyndall
August 2002 - Community Dividend

District economy expected to recover modestly

Mid-Year Ninth District Economic Forecast
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
July 2002 - fedgazette

New economy value meal, please

The hype is all high-skills and high-pay, but the meat is maybe something less
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2002 - fedgazette

Strength in hidden numbers

Underemployment and skill mismatches offer glimpse behind area labor shortages
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2002 - fedgazette

Letters to the Editor

Reader comments on fedgazette articles.
May 2002 - fedgazette

Echo boomers are in their 20s

Toby Madden
March 2002 - fedgazette

Big house on the prairie

Despite protests by some, small town leaders have sought out prisons as economic saviors. Both the critics' deepest fears and the boosters' highest hopes are likely to go unfulfilled.
Douglas Clement
January 2002 - fedgazette

Business leaders pessimistic for 2002

Results of November 2001 business outlook poll
Toby Madden
January 2002 - fedgazette

Busted?

The boom in prison growth is slowing as crime rates decline, budgets tighten and policymakers consider alternatives.
Douglas Clement
January 2002 - fedgazette

Economy in recession

Rob Grunewald
January 2002 - fedgazette

Military build-up: district defense contractors watching, waiting

A look at Ninth District defense contractors in light of recent military activity
Rosie Cataldo
January 2002 - fedgazette

Private vs. public: the prison debate

Can private prisons save tax dollars? The evidence is inconclusive.
Douglas Clement
January 2002 - fedgazette

U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Expenditures By Location Fiscal Year 2000

January 2002 - fedgazette

Wanted criminals

For two decades, prisons have been a growth strategy for small towns. Does the strategy work? And will it in the future?
Douglas Clement
January 2002 - fedgazette

A Million Mutinies: The key to economic development

An excerpt from "Lectures on Economic Growth" by Robert E. Lucas, Jr.
Robert E. Lucas, Jr.
December 2001 - The Region

A conversation with ... Jay Kayne and Don Macke

Community Dividend discusses rural entrepreneurship with Jay Kayne, vice president of community and policy at the Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership, and Don Macke, project coordi
November 2001 - Community Dividend

After the flood

Flood insurance and wetlands restoration are two policies that hold both promise and problems for flood control. Will they be able to handle the next disaster?
Douglas Clement
November 2001 - fedgazette

Back to nature

Restoring wetlands may help to control floods, but their other values complicate the picture.
Douglas Clement
November 2001 - fedgazette

Digital haves and have-nots

Rural areas are assumed to be on the losing side of the digital divide, but that might not be the case
Ronald A. Wirtz
November 2001 - fedgazette

Diverse research conducted at Ninth District universities

Rob Grunewald
November 2001 - fedgazette

Economic Aftershocks

Ninth District businesses report on the impact of Sept. 11, 2001
November 2001 - fedgazette

Editorial: The University of Minnesota as a public good

Editorial based on a paper presented at the Aug. 23 University of Minnesota conference, “The University's Contribution to Minnesota's Economic, Social and Cultural Vitality.”
Arthur J. Rolnick, Rob Grunewald
November 2001 - fedgazette

Entrepreneurship in rural communities: An emerging strategy presents opportunities and challenges

As rural America faces mounting challenges, some communities are turning to entrepreneurship as a strategy for success.
Nikki Foster
November 2001 - Community Dividend

Fighting the last war

Current policy neglects to anticipate the impact of floodplain development on future flood potential.
Douglas Clement
November 2001 - fedgazette

Incubating economic development

Fast becoming a popular tool for local economic development, incubators' long-term impact less obvious
Jane Brissett
November 2001 - fedgazette

Lotsa cooks in the broadband kitchen

Ronald A. Wirtz
November 2001 - fedgazette

Montana firm receives SBA award

November 2001 - Community Dividend

NADO honors six groups

November 2001 - Community Dividend

No strings attached: Bird Island telecom taking flight

One Minnesota community's efforts to link to the world
Ronald A. Wirtz
November 2001 - fedgazette

The University of Minnesota as a Public Good

This paper was presented at the “The University's Contribution to Minnesota's Economic, Social and Cultural Vitality” conference, University of Minnesota, August 23, 2001.
Arthur J. Rolnick, Rob Grunewald
November 2001 - fedgazette

The need for speed

Many argue broadband is a “must have” for people, businesses and communities. Who gets it, who doesn't and why?
Ronald A. Wirtz
November 2001 - fedgazette

Three-part series highlights development tools

A recap of a three-part event series on the Community Reinvestment Act and community development tools.
Nicole Bennett
November 2001 - Community Dividend

Dam it all

Dams and levees are the usual answer to flooding, but they're not always the right answer. So why do we keep building them?
Douglas Clement
September 2001 - fedgazette

District metro areas—by the numbers

Rob Grunewald
September 2001 - fedgazette

Out of harm's way

The new wave in flood control is getting rid of the problem: Us.
Douglas Clement
September 2001 - fedgazette

Public venture, public gain?

A follow-on to the July fedgazette cover story that looks at governments' role in promoting entrepreneurship and venture capital.
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2001 - fedgazette

Subsidizing sorrow

We call them acts of God, but the flood disasters of the past decade were caused, in part, by poor policy. Have we learned our lessons or are we making floods still worse?
Douglas Clement
September 2001 - fedgazette

The failure of flood control

Billions of taxpayer dollars have been spent on flood management and disaster relief, but flood disasters continue and costs keep climbing
Douglas Clement
September 2001 - fedgazette

The granddaddy of VC

A review of the federal government's Small Business Investment Co.
Ronald A. Wirtz
September 2001 - fedgazette

Business ownership increases for Native Americans

August 2001 - Community Dividend

Mongolia: Ancient country works through daunting economic challenges

As a consultant to a lending institution in Mongolia in the summer of 2000, Community Affairs Analyst Thomas Moore got a firsthand look at the country's transition from communism to a free market econ
Paula Woessner
August 2001 - Community Dividend

New Markets Tax Credits: The next tool for community-development financing

Buzz Roberts, vice president for policy at Local Initiatives Support Corporation, explains how the New Markets Tax Credit will work and what this new financing tool can and cannot accomplish.
Buzz Roberts
August 2001 - Community Dividend

District activity echoes slow national growth

District Economic Review
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
July 2001 - fedgazette

Fairy tales and venture capital

The rise of venture capital has given district states “green” envy, fretting that its absence will affect regional and state economies
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2001 - fedgazette

Ninth District Forecast

Charts
July 2001 - fedgazette

Ninth District economy mirrors the U.S. slowdown.

What is the impact of the slowdown on employment?
Toby Madden
July 2001 - fedgazette

Nurturing the light bulb economy

The new-found profile of entrepreneurs and venture capital has states eager to get more of both.
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2001 - fedgazette

Letter to the Editor

A reader responds to previous fedgazette issues focusing on local economic development incentives.
May 2001 - fedgazette

Lewis and Clark: The adventure begins, again

Plans are under way to commemorate the bicentennial anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase exploration by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
Rosie Cataldo
May 2001 - fedgazette

Phone Home

Call centers are finding a lot to like in the district, which might have long-term impact on small cities
Ronald A. Wirtz
May 2001 - fedgazette

Changing the way lawmakers make spending decisions

Editorial
Steve Rothschild
March 2001 - fedgazette

A Decade of Deals

Timeline of Ninth District Paper Industry Merger Activity
Douglas Clement
March 2001 - fedgazette

Edifice Complex

Ninth District cities are investing millions in stadiums, multiuse arenas and convention centers in hopes of better economic development and entertainment options
Ronald A. Wirtz
March 2001 - fedgazette

Ninth District Professional Sports

Map of Ninth District Professional Sports
March 2001 - fedgazette

Pitching for the minor leagues

With a bevy of quasi-professional and college teams and a perceived dearth of entertainment options, smaller cities are experiencing "the stadium issue" firsthand
Ronald A. Wirtz
March 2001 - fedgazette

Pulp Friction

Consolidation in the paper industry is a global phenomenon with huge Ninth District impact. The question is: Will it work?
Douglas Clement
March 2001 - fedgazette

Shall we gather?

Many smaller cities are eager to invest in convention centers on behalf of local economic development. Whether they should "depends on how you do the accounting."
Ronald A. Wirtz
March 2001 - fedgazette

Stadiums and convention centers as community loss leaders

Ronald A. Wirtz
March 2001 - fedgazette

“Beer Town” holds on to brewing legacy

Rosie Cataldo
March 2001 - fedgazette

A slower, but still growing Ninth District economy forecast for 2001

NInth District Economic Forecast
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
January 2001 - fedgazette

Business poll reflects cautious optimism

November 2000 business poll results
Toby Madden
January 2001 - fedgazette

Ethanol in the Ninth District

Ethanol Plants in Ninth District States
Ronald A. Wirtz
January 2001 - fedgazette

Regional airports: Fear of not flying

This is the second of a two-part series on regional airports. See Regional airports: Fasten your seatbelt in the October 2000 fedgazette.
Douglas Clement
January 2001 - fedgazette

A conversation with ... Elsie Meeks of The Lakota Fund

Community Dividend discusses the economic development efforts of The Lakota Fund with its executive director, Elsie Meeks.
November 2000 - Community Dividend

Economic development in Indian Country: Lessons learned by The Lakota Fund

By sharing 10 lessons learned from its lending activities, The Lakota Fund hopes to benefit all community developers.
Margaret Tyndall
November 2000 - Community Dividend

Fed Gov. Gramlich tours Phalen Corridor project in St. Paul

A summary of Federal Reserve Governor Edward Gramlich's July 2000 visit to St. Paul.
November 2000 - Community Dividend

Indian business group receives $1 million grant

November 2000 - Community Dividend

Walking the Native Path to Economic Development: Results of Fall 1999 conference

A discussion of the results of a Fed-sponsored, Fall 1999 conference on tribal economic development.
Margaret Tyndall, Thomas Moore
November 2000 - Community Dividend

A Chronology of Banking in Lyon County

Appendix 1: Banks in 1916
David S. Dahl
October 2000 - fedgazette

Banking history reflects the life of a community

Former Minneapolis Fed economist David Dahl reported on 100 years of banking in Lyon County, Minn., at a fall 1999 conference, "Business and Banking in the Countryside," sponsored by the Rural and Reg
David S. Dahl
October 2000 - fedgazette

Eau Claire at front of metro class

Wisconsin State Roundup
October 2000 - fedgazette

Growing Deposits and Loans on the Prairie Eighty-five Years of Banking in Lyon County

David S. Dahl
October 2000 - fedgazette

Montana's blasting into (aero)space

Rosie Cataldo
October 2000 - fedgazette

Ninth District Cities with Scheduled Air Service

Map: Ninth District Cities with Scheduled Air Service
October 2000 - fedgazette

Regional airports: Fasten your seatbelt

This is the first of a two-part series on regional airports. See Regional airports: Fear of not flying in the January 2001 fedgazette.
Douglas Clement
October 2000 - fedgazette

A conversation with ... Elise Hoben and Bob Poznanski of Rural LISC

Community Dividend discusses rural community development corporations with Elise Hoben and Bob Poznanski, two noted experts from Rural Local Initiatives Support Corporation.
August 2000 - Community Dividend

CDFI Fund awards $112 million

August 2000 - Community Dividend

Minneapolis receives $900,000 development grant

August 2000 - Community Dividend

Revolving loan funds: A source of capital in South Dakota

Revolving loan funds are a major source of capital for individuals who do not qualify for traditional financing.
Nicole Bennett
August 2000 - Community Dividend

A little help from uncle sammy

Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2000 - fedgazette

A toolbox of favors

A kitty of different business incentives gives local communities the wherewithal to close deals
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2000 - fedgazette

Backed by popular demand

With subsidized interest rates, public loan programs abound but don't always deliver
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2000 - fedgazette

District farm wages are higher than national average

July 2000 - fedgazette

District metropolitan economies surpass some countries

Gross Product by Country and Metropolitan Area
July 2000 - fedgazette

Fully loaded

Despite how they might prefer to operate, development professionals offer cache of incentives to remain competitive
Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2000 - fedgazette

Letters to the editor: Incentives not all bad

Reader comments on economic development incentives.
July 2000 - fedgazette

Owners Manual: A Glossary of Incentive Tools

Ronald A. Wirtz
July 2000 - fedgazette

The district economy continues to sail along

Mid-Year Ninth District Economic Forecast
Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
July 2000 - fedgazette

Winning battles, rather than the war, on economic development subsidies

Editorial
Arthur J. Rolnick
July 2000 - fedgazette

Critics say roadless initiative a hit-and-run on local communities

Ronald A. Wirtz
April 2000 - fedgazette

Letters to the Editor

Readers respond to Arthur Rolnick's comments on business subsidies in the January fedgazette
April 2000 - fedgazette

Local economic development: A recipe for stone soup

Ronald A. Wirtz
April 2000 - fedgazette

Local economic development: At your service

With a little help, communities large and small are getting aggressive over local economic development
Ronald A. Wirtz
April 2000 - fedgazette

Minnesota Economic Development

April 2000 - fedgazette

Montana Economic Development

April 2000 - fedgazette

North Dakota Economic Development

April 2000 - fedgazette

Semantics, lack of data create large gray area

Ronald A. Wirtz
April 2000 - fedgazette

Shoestring budgets and Third World competition

Ronald A. Wirtz
April 2000 - fedgazette

South Dakota Economic Development

April 2000 - fedgazette

The crowded field of local economic development

Ronald A. Wirtz
April 2000 - fedgazette

Upper Peninsula Economic Development

April 2000 - fedgazette

Wisconsin Economic Development

April 2000 - fedgazette

Airport moves out, casino moves in

Michigan State Roundup
January 2000 - fedgazette

Counterpoint: The lesson to be learned from the failed Excelsior-Henderson

The recent bankruptcy of Minnesota's Excelsior-Henderson Co., a motorcycle manufacturer whose start-up was subsidized by state and local governments, has again raised the issue of the wisdom of those
Arthur J. Rolnick
January 2000 - fedgazette

Excelsior-Henderson: Motorcycle dream fades in bankruptcy

The recent bankruptcy of Minnesota's Excelsior-Henderson Co., a motorcycle manufacturer whose start-up was subsidized by state and local governments, has again raised the issue of the wisdom of those
January 2000 - fedgazette

Great Falls supports ambitious development

Montana State Roundup
January 2000 - fedgazette

Look for a growing economy in the new millennium

Responses to the Minneapolis Fed's November 1999 business poll
Toby Madden
January 2000 - fedgazette

Ninth District Outlook

Ninth District Economic Forecast Charts
January 2000 - fedgazette

Ninth District economy enters the new year in good shape

Ninth District Economic Forecast
Jason Schmidt, Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
January 2000 - fedgazette

Technology center to aid growth

Minnesota State Roundup
January 2000 - fedgazette

Meeting A New Century of Challenges In Rural America

An overview of the challenges facing rural America, with suggestions about the proper response of public policy.
Mark Drabenstott
December 1999 - The Region

Conference participants share their own views

A summary of participants's responses to key questions asked at an April 1999 mixed-use development conference.
Nicole Bennett
November 1999 - Community Dividend

Harvard recognizes outstanding tribal governance programs

Five programs on Indian reservations in the Ninth Federal Reserve District recently received distinction from the Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development.
Cindy Porter
November 1999 - Community Dividend

Partnerships and financing are key to mixed-use development

At a mixed-use development conference in Minneapolis, lenders and local government staff provided valuable insight into real-world issues and lessons they learned in doing mixed-use projects.
Nicole Bennett
November 1999 - Community Dividend

District economy will continue to grow, but some slowing creeps in

Mid-Year Ninth District Economic Forecast
Jason Schmidt, Toby Madden, Rob Grunewald
July 1999 - fedgazette

Microenterprise awards are announced

Two Ninth District organizations recently received awards for their outstanding work in the field of microenterprise development.
Stephanie Omersa
July 1999 - Community Dividend

Unemployment today in Europe and Japan: Lessons from the U.S. Great Depression

Seventy years after the start of the Great Depression, economists are still arguing about its cause and duration; recent research by two Minneapolis Fed economists offers new insight into that era and
V. V. Chari
July 1999 - fedgazette

Urban/rural community banks face similar challenges

The fedgazette's fourth annual community banking poll, March 1999.
David S. Dahl
July 1999 - fedgazette

Linking rural America

What is the impact of telecommunications on the Ninth District's rural economy?
Ronald A. Wirtz
April 1999 - fedgazette

Rural businesses are spurring much of the growth in telecommunications

Ronald A. Wirtz
April 1999 - fedgazette

Two Ninth District communities take lead in telecommunications

Ronald A. Wirtz
April 1999 - fedgazette

Business leaders optimistic, but less so than a year ago

Ninth District Business Leader Poll
David S. Dahl
January 1999 - fedgazette

Onward and (cautiously) upward: Despite some concerns, expansion likely to continue

NInth District 1999 Economic Forecast
January 1999 - fedgazette

Some bumps along the way, but outlook still good for coming year

David S. Dahl, Jason Schmidt, Edward Lotterman
January 1999 - fedgazette

Mixed-use development profile: Edina, Minn.

Highlights of mixed-use development in Edina, Minn.
Larry Laukka
December 1998 - Community Dividend

Mixed-use development profile: Hibbing, Minn.

Highlights of mixed-use development in Hibbing, Minn.
Jane Kaiser
December 1998 - Community Dividend

Mixed-use development profile: Minneapolis

Highlights of mixed-use development in Minneapolis.
Iric Nathanson
December 1998 - Community Dividend

Mixed-use development: Through the lenders' looking glass

Mixed-use developments were the norm in American towns and cities in the early part of this century. Now they are making a comeback, raising issues for lenders.
Nicole Bennett
December 1998 - Community Dividend

The future of mixed-use development: A developer shares his views

Community Dividend speaks with Edina, Minn.-based developer Larry Laukka about his perspective on the state of mixed-use development in the Twin Cities.
Thomas Moore
December 1998 - Community Dividend

What does "mixed-use development" mean?

The term "mixed-use development" holds a variety of meanings and can be applied to a wide range of community development projects.
December 1998 - Community Dividend

Can the U.S. economy weather world storms?

Minneapolis Fed President Gary Stern observes the nation's resilient economic performance in light of current and potential economic crises
Gary H. Stern
November 1998 - fedgazette

District outlook remains bright overall

Mid-Year Ninth District Economic Forecast
David S. Dahl, Edward Lotterman, Heidi Taylor Aggeler
July 1998 - fedgazette

Federal Reserve Governor Meyer visits Ninth District Indian reservations

An interview with Federal Reserve Governor Laurence H. Meyer, who visited two Minnesota Indian reservations in May 1998.
David Fettig, Margaret Tyndall
July 1998 - Community Dividend

Model code addresses economic development in Indian Country

A model commercial code for Indian tribes is designed to encourage the business and lending communities to invest in Indian Country and foster economic development.
Maylinn E. Smith
July 1998 - Community Dividend

Tribal sovereign immunity: An obstacle for non-Indians doing business in Indian Country?

What is sovereign immunity, and what does it mean in the tribal context?
Sue Woodrow
July 1998 - Community Dividend

U.S. banks offered historic opportunity in Indian Country

To serve the emerging Indian-owned private enterprise market, bankers should understand the structure of the economies of tribal communities and the size of the potential market.
Patrick Borunda
July 1998 - Community Dividend

We, the First Americans shows statistics regarding indigenous U.S. citizens

Census statistics offer a picture of how economic life for American Indians on reservations compares with that of the rest of the U.S. population.
July 1998 - Community Dividend

District business leaders are upbeat about '98

Ninth District Business Poll
David S. Dahl
January 1998 - fedgazette

Good news continues for Ninth District economy

Ninth District Economic Forecast
David S. Dahl, Edward Lotterman, Heidi Taylor Aggeler
January 1998 - fedgazette

Labor availability makes the business headlines, but metro areas also deal with other issues

David Fettig
January 1998 - fedgazette

Metro Outlook '98

Ninth District metro areas share concerns over tight workforce, downtown viability and other issues
David Fettig
January 1998 - fedgazette

Bank CDCs: Building partnerships for community development

Bank CDCs are tools for promoting economic and community development that have gained popularity in communities across the country.
December 1997 - Community Dividend

At midyear, prospects good for much of district economy

Mid-Year Ninth District Economic Forecast
David S. Dahl, Edward Lotterman, Heidi Taylor Aggeler
July 1997 - fedgazette

How U.S. policy can promote higher economic growth

James A. Schmitz, Jr., Preston J. Miller
July 1997 - fedgazette

Recycling resources

The Community Reinvestment Fund links economic development financing more closely with capital markets and gives community-based lenders a funding option other than uncertain sources of government mon
July 1997 - Community Dividend

Spotlight on success: The Anoka County partnership

The Anoka County Economic Development Partnership has allowed many groups and individuals to join forces and help launch and nurture businesses.
July 1997 - Community Dividend

Toil, hope, frustration mark Grand Forks recovery

Edward Lotterman
July 1997 - fedgazette

Credit scoring and small business loans

Credit scoring is the process of assigning a single quantitative measure, or score, to a potential borrower that reflects the borrower's relative chance of going into delinquency or default.
Ron J. Feldman
April 1997 - Community Dividend

How the Ninth District fares in tourism

Ninth District States Tourism Stats
Kathy Cobb
April 1997 - fedgazette

Lending to small firms and small farms

A snapshot of data on the distribution of business loans to farms and firms by the size of the loan.
Ron J. Feldman
April 1997 - Community Dividend

Measuring tourism's impact still an inexact science

Kathy Cobb
April 1997 - fedgazette

Receding flood waters reveal huge damage assessment

Total bill will exceed $1 billion; infrastructure costs will hang on for years
Edward Lotterman
April 1997 - fedgazette

Staffing tourism business not an easy task

Kathy Cobb
April 1997 - fedgazette

Tourism Advisory Forum

The Minneapolis Fed held a forum for a group of Ninth District tourism business people-resort operators, academics, and government and visitor association officials to learn more about that industry.
Kathy Cobb
April 1997 - fedgazette

Tourism Forum Participants

April 1997 - fedgazette

Tourism may be a young industry, but its impact is anything but small

Tourism has become one of the leading Ninth District industries, supplying thousands of jobs and billions of dollars in economic impact, but the relatively young industry face big challenges in the co
Kathy Cobb
April 1997 - fedgazette

District business leaders optimistic about 1997

Ninth District Business Poll
David S. Dahl
January 1997 - fedgazette

District economy expected to slow through 1997

Ninth District Economic Forecast
January 1997 - fedgazette

Growth will continue, but at slower pace in 1997

Bank's Ninth District forecast, business poll and ag credit survey suggest that western states will fare worse than eastern states in the district
January 1997 - fedgazette

Bank Enterprise Awards announced

The Community Development Financial Institutions Found has announced the first-ever recipients of its Bank Enterprise Awards.
December 1996 - Community Dividend

CDFIs focus on community development

CDFIs serve an important function in their communities by meeting needs for financial services and products that are not currently being met through the traditional financial market.
December 1996 - Community Dividend

Ninth District corporation is awarded CDFI funds

A Ninth District organization is among the first-ever recipients of Community Development Financial Institutions Fund awards.
December 1996 - Community Dividend

Can't have it both ways

Reply from Mel Burstein and Art Rolnick, authors of the bank's 1994 Annual Report ssay, "Congress Should End the Economic War Among the States" to letters received in response to the Minneapolis Fed
Arthur J. Rolnick, Melvin L. Burstein
October 1996 - fedgazette

Economic War Among the States: An Exchange

Letter to the editor received in response to the Minneapolis Fed's special issue of The Region magazine, "The Economic War Among the States" (June 1996), and in response to columns that have appeared
October 1996 - fedgazette

Fargo's one-directional growth

David Fettig
October 1996 - fedgazette

For Billings, west-end growth is beginning to raise questions

David Fettig
October 1996 - fedgazette

Growth brings concerns

Ninth District cities enjoy expansion, but some face new issues as growth reaches to the prairies
David Fettig
October 1996 - fedgazette

In St. Cloud, if you want city services, you join the city and many want in

David Fettig
October 1996 - fedgazette

Incentives don't just lure jobs, they create them

Letter to the editor received in response to the Minneapolis Fed's special issue of The Region magazine, "The Economic War Among the States" (June 1996), and in response to columns that have appeared
October 1996 - fedgazette

Is trend destiny?

Ninth District rural population grows, but consolidation continues
David S. Dahl
October 1996 - fedgazette

Sioux Falls is growing like a tree, but does it need pruning?

David Fettig
October 1996 - fedgazette

Time for a new generation of homesteaders?

Delore Zimmerman
July 1996 - fedgazette

A report from the battlefield

Conference attendees agree on some proposals, but no treaty
David Fettig
June 1996 - The Region

An Economic War

Alice M. Rivlin
June 1996 - The Region

Bidding against the future?

Robert B. Reich
June 1996 - The Region

Business climate and the role of development incentives

Brian Dabson, Carl Rist, William Schweke
June 1996 - The Region

Commerce Clause restraints on state tax incentives

Walter Hellerstein
June 1996 - The Region

Doing battle over the incentives war: Improve accountability but avoid federal noncompete mandates

Graham S. Toft
June 1996 - The Region

Eight issues for policy toward economic development incentives

Timothy J. Bartik
June 1996 - The Region

Like all wars, this one requires political leadership

Top of the Ninth Column
Gary H. Stern
June 1996 - The Region

On the efficiency effects of tax competition for firms

Joe Mattey, Mark Spiegel
June 1996 - The Region

Taxes, incentives and competition for investment

Peter S. Fisher, Alan H. Peters
June 1996 - The Region

The Economic War Among the States: An Overview

The pros and cons of the debate
Chris Farrell
June 1996 - The Region

The Symposium Goes Cyber

The Internet's role in the debate
June 1996 - The Region

The congressional process and the constitutionality of federal legislation to end the economic war among the states

Philip P. Frickey
June 1996 - The Region

The power of Congress to regulate interstate economic competition

Larry Kramer
June 1996 - The Region

The problem with state bidding wars and some possible remedies

Gerald W. McEntee
June 1996 - The Region

Impressions of an emerging market economy

Arthur J. Rolnick and Richard M. Todd led roundtable seminars on the subject of monetary policy implementation at the Warsaw School of Economics in February 1996.
Arthur J. Rolnick
April 1996 - fedgazette

It ain't broke yet, so let's fix it now

Twin Cities traffic may not be that bad, but some are preparing for the worst
David Fettig
April 1996 - fedgazette

Lights! camera! profits!

Filmmaking brings glitter—and dollars—to the Ninth District
Kathy Cobb
April 1996 - fedgazette

Congress should end the economic war for sports and other businesses

Arthur J. Rolnick, Melvin L. Burstein
January 1996 - fedgazette

Sprawl steals more than urban residents, it undermines business and regional health

Lyle Wray
January 1996 - fedgazette

The quiet side of economic development

While state and local governments make the headlines, foundations take risks, test ideas and redefine the term
David Fettig
January 1996 - fedgazette

The Upper Peninsula must seize control of its own economic future

William E. Vandament
October 1995 - fedgazette

Cities should stop playing poker with tax dollars

Melvin L. Burstein
July 1995 - fedgazette

The Future of Rural America

Lawrence B. Lindsey
June 1995 - The Region

A banker's perspective on economic development

Address given before the State of the State Conference held in Bismarck, N.D., in January 1995.
Harvey Huber
April 1995 - fedgazette

Expanding the Nation's Productive Capacity

Chapter Three, Economic Report of the President, 1995
David S. Dahl
April 1995 - fedgazette

Improved cash flow, productivity gains

Drive to improve cash flow yields productivity gains; Trane redesigns manufacturing process
David S. Dahl
April 1995 - fedgazette

Productivity primer

How does economy grow?
David S. Dahl
April 1995 - fedgazette

The quality movement may spur productive growth

Rural group, M&I bank agree to work together to aid rural areas
David Fettig
April 1995 - fedgazette

Advisers comment on district economy

Amid signs of strength, advisory council detects an “undercurrent of uncertainty”
January 1995 - fedgazette

Main Street USA's economic slide isn't just a rural problem

Reprinted from the Humphrey Institute News, Autumn 1994.
G. Edward Schuh
January 1995 - fedgazette

It's just good business to care

fedgazette Editorial
David A. Koch
July 1994 - fedgazette

La Crosse's prospects in a changing economy

This article is based on a presentation by David S. Dahl and Edward Lotterman, economists in the Public Affairs Department, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, at Fed Focus: La Crosse, April 29, 1994
David S. Dahl, Edward Lotterman
July 1994 - fedgazette

On the growing disparity between the rich and the poor

fedgazette Editorial
Arthur J. Rolnick
July 1994 - fedgazette

District states surpass projected growth

Ninth District Economic Forecast
David S. Dahl
April 1994 - fedgazette

Impact study puts all facts on the table about sports facility

fedgazette Editorial
Wilbur Maki
April 1994 - fedgazette

We don't need study to conclude bailing out arena isn't wise

fedgazette Editorial
Arthur J. Rolnick
April 1994 - fedgazette

From Butte to Duluth, Ninth District communities answer call to 'Play Ball'

David Fettig
January 1994 - fedgazette

Ninth District becomes hub of 'Minor League' basketball

David Fettig
January 1994 - fedgazette

Secondary sports are primary objective of many Ninth District communities

What's the cost/benefit of civic pride?
David Fettig
January 1994 - fedgazette

Sports in La Crosse deliver clear—and intangible—benefits

Kathy Cobb
January 1994 - fedgazette

Amid noise of its prominent closures, Eau Claire continues to grow

David Fettig
April 1993 - fedgazette

District growth is steady, but unspectacular

Excerpt of Gary H. Stern's March 10, 1993, full testimony before the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs
Gary H. Stern
April 1993 - fedgazette

District states struggle with budgets

David S. Dahl
April 1993 - fedgazette

From the ashes of economic crises, Jackson builds economic diversity

David Fettig
April 1993 - fedgazette

Strong sense of community vital to success

Larry G. Schank
April 1993 - fedgazette

Views on the economy, monetary policy

Summary of Gary Stern's March 10, 1993, testimony to the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs
Gary H. Stern
April 1993 - fedgazette

When a “company town” loses its company, no magic formula for recovery

Successful towns cite community effort, persistence
David Fettig
April 1993 - fedgazette

Adding value to agriculture: new life for an old industry?

Edward Lotterman
January 1993 - fedgazette

Consumer confidence: does it lead or lag the economy?

Jean Kinsey
January 1993 - fedgazette

Mild growth will continue, advisors say, aided by retail improvement and good news from agriculture

January 1993 - fedgazette

State & local economic development policy a zero-sum game ... or worse?

Arthur J. Rolnick
January 1993 - fedgazette

A unified currency will mean prosperity

fedgaztte Editoral
Arthur J. Rolnick
October 1992 - fedgazette

Europe's road to serfdom

fedgazette Editorial
Robert J. Barro
October 1992 - fedgazette

Businesses blossom on Minneapolis' Franklin Avenue

Entrepreneur gives Minneapolis neighborhood a boost
Kathy Cobb
July 1992 - fedgazette

Development Center aids Indian-owned businesses

David Fettig
July 1992 - fedgazette

Don't close reservations' window of opportunity

fedgazette Editorial
Tim Giago
July 1992 - fedgazette

For Ninth District Indian reservations, economic development means independence and self-reliance

David Fettig
July 1992 - fedgazette

From Red Cliff to Pine Ridge, reservations tie hopes to tourism, small business and manufacturing

David Fettig
July 1992 - fedgazette

Incubator nurtures American Indian-owned and other minority businesses

Kathy Cobb
July 1992 - fedgazette

Proposal would make tribes investors in off-reservation development

David Fettig
July 1992 - fedgazette

The industry that keeps growing and growing and ...

David Fettig
July 1992 - fedgazette

Ninth District advisers give mixed review of economy, with some signs of recovery

Minneapolis Fed's Advisory Council on Small Business, Agriculture and Labor report on the state of the Ninth District's economy.
January 1992 - fedgazette

Can you create a high-tech environment?

Many devise strategies—luck plays a role
David Fettig
October 1991 - fedgazette

Crisis looms as America exports innovation, imports products

Interview with William C. Norris, founder of Control Data Corp.
David Fettig
October 1991 - fedgazette

High-tech competition inspires states, universities to innovate

David Fettig
October 1991 - fedgazette

Job creation: A classic win-win situation

fedgazette Editorial
George S. Mickelson
October 1991 - fedgazette

The job creation illusion

fedgazette Editorial
Arthur J. Rolnick
October 1991 - fedgazette

Creative Destruction

The Underlying Force in the Area's Economic Turbulence
David Beal
September 1991 - The Region

Entrepreneurial impact on Ninth District economy grows

David Fettig
July 1991 - fedgazette

The economic necessity of corporate involvement

fedgazette Editorial
Ian A. Martin
July 1991 - fedgazette

Interview with Bruce Adams

Bruce C. Adams talks about his role at the Fed, the current and future conditions of agriculture, and North Dakota's potential for economic development.
February 1991 - The Region

Is The Party Over?

Falling Tax Values Threaten Metro Governments
Eric Weiffering
February 1991 - The Region

Faced with decreased revenues and economic uncertainty, states must make tough budgetary decisions

David Fettig
December 1990 - fedgazette

Philosophically and otherwise, change is in order for Minnesota finances

David Fettig
December 1990 - fedgazette

The silent crisis in Minnesota's higher education

fedgazette Editorial
Nils Hasselmo
December 1990 - fedgazette

As the Iron Curtain opens, some businesses rush in, while others react warily to economic changes

David Fettig
September 1990 - fedgazette

Eastern Europe: is opportunity knocking?

fedgazette Editorial
C. Ford Runge
September 1990 - fedgazette

Finding the right Soviet market is one thing, getting paid is another

Barbara Birr
September 1990 - fedgazette

Hungry for joint ventures, Soviets enjoy working with small companies, Minnesota businessman says

David Fettig
September 1990 - fedgazette

The best business opportunities among former communist bloc countries

Trade analysts rank the top three prospects for small to mid-sized companies
Barbara Birr
September 1990 - fedgazette

Communities are cautiously optimistic about future of Air Force bases

David Fettig
June 1990 - fedgazette

Administration plan calls for more local user fees

David Fettig
March 1990 - fedgazette

Communities tie economic hopes to four-lane highways

David Fettig
March 1990 - fedgazette

Direct foreign investment in the Ninth District increases, but share still low

David S. Dahl
March 1990 - fedgazette

Transportation and economic development: an important, yet costly, relationship

David Fettig
March 1990 - fedgazette

10-month sales tax creates $40 million business loan fund

David Fettig
December 1989 - fedgazette

Articles on the Great Plains

fedgazette Editorials
Bruce Adams, Frank J. Popper, Deborah Epstein Popper
December 1989 - fedgazette

Down with the comparable worth bureaucracy

fedgazette Editorial
Preston J. Miller
December 1989 - fedgazette

Flight of Minnesota businesses inspires creation of tax credit

David Fettig
December 1989 - fedgazette

State economic development programs needed expense or just wishful thinking?

David Fettig
December 1989 - fedgazette

State-owned bank provides North Dakota's economic funds

David Fettig
December 1989 - fedgazette

Three departments joined in common development effort

David Fettig
December 1989 - fedgazette

Too small for state programs, federal funds crucial to U.P.

David Fettig
December 1989 - fedgazette

Venture capital alliance unites Montana's private/public sectors

David Fettig
December 1989 - fedgazette

Environmental sensitivity a threat to economic recovery

John I. Rajala
September 1989 - fedgazette

Minnesota's forests: balancing jobs and our environment

fedgazette Editorial
Gayle Peterson
September 1989 - fedgazette

Proposed paper/pulp mill has groups drawing battle lines

David Fettig
September 1989 - fedgazette

Squeezed for space, La Crosse considers development of River Valley

David Fettig
September 1989 - fedgazette

The economics of environmental protection

David S. Dahl
September 1989 - fedgazette

There's no such thing as a good recession

fedgazette Editorial
Arthur J. Rolnick
September 1989 - fedgazette

Wetlands debate: after years of fighting officials hope for reconciliation

David Fettig
September 1989 - fedgazette

100 Years: A History of the Land and its People

Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota celebrate Centennials during 1989.
August 1989 - The Region

Historical Adaptation To Natural Features

South Dakota 1889-1989
Herbert T. Hoover
August 1989 - The Region

The Quest For State Sovereignty

Montana 1889-1989
Robert R. Swartout Jr.
August 1989 - The Region

Where Prairie and Plains Meet

North Dakota 1889-1989
D. Jerome Tweton
August 1989 - The Region

Feast or famine: aging labor supply affects Ninth District economy in varied ways

David Fettig
June 1989 - fedgazette

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