System Working Paper 19-02

The Slaughter of the Bison and Reversal of Fortunes on the Great Plains

Donna Feir | CICD Research Economist
Rob Gillezeau | University of Victoria
Maggie E.C. Jones | University of Victoria

Published January 15, 2019

In the late 19th century, the North American bison was brought to the brink of extinction in just over a decade. We show that the bison’s slaughter led to a reversal of fortunes for the Native Americans who relied on them. Once the tallest people in the world, the generations of bison-reliant people born after the slaughter were among the shortest. Today, formerly bison-reliant societies have between 20-40% less income per capita than the average Native American nation. We argue that federal Indian policy that limited out-migration from reservations and restricted employment opportunities to crop based agriculture hampered the ability of bison-reliant societies to adjust in the long-run, generating lasting regional disparities associated with other indicators of social dislocation, such as suicide and unrest.

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