Employment data are picking up on the impact of lower oil prices on labor markets in the Bakken. The price for West Texas Intermediate dropped from $90 per barrel in the beginning of October to $50 in January, hovering around that price since then. During this time, the number of active drilling rigs in North Dakota and Montana decreased by more than 50 percent, dropping below 100 rigs at the end of March and leading to layoffs of oilfield workers.
These job losses seemed to impact overall employment, as levels decreased from 102,600 in December to 95,000 in January for the 12-county area that makes up the core area of the Bakken (see definition below). Seasonality affects employment data, as levels are higher during the summer months and lower in the winter (see Chart 1). However, during the previous two years, employment increased slightly from December to January.
As employment slowed, the unemployment rate for the region increased from 1.5 percent in December to 2.1 percent in January (see Chart 2). While the Bakken unemployment rate also increased from December to January during the previous two years, the rate increased faster during the most recent period. For the whole state of North Dakota, the unemployment rate increased to 2.9 percent in February, losing its status as the lowest unemployment rate in the nation to Nebraska, which posted a 2.7 percent rate.
The number of online job postings in the Bakken area also decreased from December to January, but increased slightly from January to February (see Chart 3). The number of job openings still remains at a relatively high level in the region, despite layoffs in the oilfields. Companies from a variety of sectors continue to actively look for workers. But with the loosening in labor markets, employers in and around the Bakken have reported an increased number of applicants to choose from.
12-county Bakken area: North Dakota counties: Billings, Burke, Divide, Dunn, Golden Valley, McKenzie, Mountrail, Stark and Williams. Montana counties: Richland, Roosevelt and Sheridan