This article documents the number of fatal encounters per population for Native Americans across the country and in the Ninth Federal Reserve District, which is made up of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, northwestern Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Both male and female Native Americans have more fatal encounters per population than their white counterparts. In the Ninth District, Native American males have 14 times as many fatal encounters as white males; Native American females have 38 times as many fatal encounters as white females. Fatal encounters per population for Native Americans are generally lower in tribal statistical areas, except for those affected by Public Law 280.
Download article (pdf)