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Focus on Health: Additional resources

Our Racism and the Economy: Focus on Health event examines how systemic racism impacts health and, ultimately, economic outcomes. We explore the intersection of health, racism, and the economy because it’s so critical to the Federal Reserve’s work to promote a strong economy and maximum employment.

Jump to: Session Proposals | Health, Employment, Earnings | Health, Housing, Community Development | Health Insurance and Medical Care Access | Life Cycle and Intergenerational Health | Mental Health | COVID-19 Impact and Response

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Session proposals

These papers go into greater detail on the proposals presented by the authors during the Racism and the Economy: Focus on Health event.


Taking Health Care to the People: 6 Proposals to Improve Health, Economic, and Educational Outcomes for Black Communities

Proposal PDF | Wayne Frederick

Poor Quality Race/Ethnicity Data is Systemic Racism

Proposal PDF | Stella Yi, Simona Kwon

Abundant Birth Project: A Monthly Cash Supplement During Pregnancy and the Post-natal Period Provided to Black Mothers (and Other Black Pregnant People) to Address the Persistent Racial Disparities in Birth Outcomes

Proposal PDF | Zea Malawa, Monica De La Cruz, Deborah Karasek

Health, Employment, Earnings

Opioids and the Labor Market

Working Paper | Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

How Important Is Health Inequality for Lifetime Earnings Inequality?

Working Paper | Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta

Does U.S. Health Inequality Reflect Income Inequality—or Something Else?

Article | Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Health, Housing, Community Development

Health and Community Development

Publication | Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco

The Health of Arab-Americans Living in the United States: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Article | Abdul M. El-Sayed, Co-Author

Ethnic Inequalities in Mortality: The Case of Arab-Americans

Article | Abdul M. El-Sayed, Co-Author

Housing Stability and Family Health: An Issue Brief

Brief | Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco and Bay Area Regional Health Inequities Initiative

Power, Politics, and Health: A New Public Health Practice Targeting the Root Causes of Health Equity

Article | Anthony Iton, Co-Author

Racism as a Root Cause Approach: A New Framework

Article | Zea Malawa, Co-Author

Healthy Communities: A Framework for Meeting CRA Obligations

Publication | Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas

Overcrowding in the Bay Area: Where the Housing Crisis Meets COVID-19

Blog Post | Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco

Health Insurance and Medical Care Access

Public Health Insurance: TennCare Disenrollment and Personal Financial Distress

Working Paper | Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta

Health Insurance as an Income Stabilizer

Working Paper | Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia

Features Associated with Successful Recruitment of Diverse Patients onto Cancer Clinical Trials: Report from the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group

Report | Wayne Frederick, Co-Author

The Aggregate and Relative Economic Effects of Government Financed Health Care

Article | Bill Dupor and Guerrero Rodrigo

The Consequences of Medicare Pricing: An Explanation of Treatment Choice

Article | Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

Commentary—Structural Racism: The Rules and Relations of Inequity

Article | Gilbert C. Gee and Margaret T. Hicken

The Affordable Care Act: More Health Care Services at Lower Cost?

Article | Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

The Gaps in Health

Podcast | The PEW Charitable Trusts

The Healthcare Divide

Film | Public Broadcasting Service

Life Cycle and Intergenerational Health



COVID-19 Impact and Response

Unequal Burdens: Racial Differences in ICU Stress During the Third Wave of COVID-19

Article | Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Carrying Equity in COVID-19 Vaccination Forward: Guidance Informed by Communities of Color

Report | CommuniVax Coalition

Hospital Access in the Fifth District and COVID-19

Article | Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond

Investigating the Effect of Health Insurance in the COVID-19 Pandemic

Article | Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Understanding the Racial and Income Gap in COVID-19: Health Insurance, Comorbidities, and Medical Facilities

Article | Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Health Insurance and Essential Service Workers in New England: Who Lacks Access to Care for COVID-19?

Brief | Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

The Reckoning: When a Pandemic Collides with Systemic Racism

Video | Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

The 1918 Flu and COVID-19 Pandemics: Different Patients, Different Economy

Article | Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

The Relationship Between Race, Type of Work, and COVID-19 Infection Rates

Working Paper | Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

COVID-19 Containment Measures, Health and the Economy

Article | Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

The Impact of Health and Economic Policies on the Spread of COVID-19 and Economic Activity

Working Paper | Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Health Versus Wealth: On the Distributional Effects of Controlling a Pandemic

Working Paper | Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City

Our Economy and Health in Crisis

Video | Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis

Modern Pandemics: Recession and Recovery

Discussion Paper | Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

What Can We Learn from the Spanish Flu Pandemic of 1918-19 for COVID-19?

Article | Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Disparities and Mitigation Behavior During COVID-19

Working Paper | Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis